Author: Andreas Loewe. Add to Cart. Have an Access Token? Enter your access token to activate and access content online. Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token. Have Institutional Access? Forgot your password? PDF Preview. Table of Contents. Related Content. The commentary explains the Biblical and poetic text, and its musical setting, line by line.
For the first time, this work makes much German scholarship available in English, including archival sources, and includes a new scholarly translation of the libretto. Author: L. William Oliverio Jr. Oliverio gives special attention to key figures in shaping Pentecostal theology and the underlying philosophical assumptions which informed their theological interpretations of reality. The text concludes with a philosophical basis for future Pentecostal theological hermeneutics within the contours of a hermeneutical realism that affirms both the hermeneutical nature of all theology and the implicit affirmation of realism within theological accounts.
Textual History of the Bible Vol. The movement, of which copies are in the Schicht and Schelble mss. The movement comes to us through three mss. It is in the Pachelbel form, a Fugue in three parts upon the first two lines of the melody, which is introduced at the close as a cantus firmus on the pedal. A similar scheme occurs in the setting of the Magnificat N. The attribution of the movement to Bach rests upon a Krebs ms.
The movement is in three parts, as, significantly, are six of the ten movements on the melody. The words are by Wolfgang Dachstein, to whom the melody also is assigned. He died circa Both are in G major. In quavers, against the crotchets of the cantus, the accompaniment ripples on pellucidly in a figure which, in No.
Practically they are built upon the same Bass, and their contrapuntal accompaniment to the cantus is constructed out of the opening two lines of the melody. The melody also occurs in Choralgesange, No. In the penultimate bar supra E flat for E natural as the sixth note was Edition: current; Page: [ ] general after He dates its composition circa , during the Weimar period. In the year , as will be shown, Bach revised No.
With what art he creates cf. Spitta suggests 2 that Bach revised the Hamburg improvisation No. While preserving the framework of No. The single ms. Bach makes little use of it. It occurs only in the movements infra and Cantata 38 c. They are the only ones in that collection, as Sir Hubert Parry points out 2 , which completely reproduce the Pachelbel type.
A piece of pure music of unsurpassable grandeur, the Prelude seems to derive its inspiration from the mood expressed in stanza iii of the hymn:. At the thirteenth bar from the end Bach introduces a rhythm of joy that rolls on with increasing fervour to its climax of fruition and content.
The addition of Trombones to the Pedal cantus enhances its impressiveness. The movement becomes, like No. After studying at Wittenberg under Luther and Melanchthon, Alberus worked as a schoolmaster until, in , he was appointed pastor at Sprendlingen and Gotzenhain. Later he settled at Magdeburg, and was present during the long siege of the city in In the hymn was published in the Edition: current; Page: [ ] Hamburg Enchiridion Geistliker Leder und Psalmen along with another melody than that which Bach uses.
In the former his text exactly follows Witt No. It will be observed that the second line of the cantus in the Variations differs from the original version. Schweitzer 2 points out that the number of Variations corresponds to Edition: current; Page: [ ] the number of stanzas in the hymn. But the inference that each Variation pictures the corresponding stanza does not survive examination. It is difficult to imagine Bach tempted to distinguish in seven pictures moods so placid and invariable as the hymn maintains. He is not even moved, as in maturer years he might have been, by references to Satan and the angels; though the convolutions of the accompanying figure in Variations II, IV, VI may have been prompted by the image of the Serpent.
On the other hand, it need not follow that the numerical correspondence between the hymn stanzas and the Variations is fortuitous. The opening broad and simple treatment of the melody looks like a statement of the cantus as a preliminary to singing the first stanza. The remaining movements may have been designed as improvisations between the stanzas.
Copies also exist in the Hauser Collection. Stanza iii 1. The melody is found in print in With the words it occurs in a text of . Zahn does not reveal the source of his variations: nor does Bach follow Witt No. Probably they are his own. His melodic text closely fits the words of each stanza:. A four-part setting of the melody is in B.
Copies of it are in the Forkel and Hauser mss. In the Organ works, Cantatas 4 and , and Choralgesange, Nos. The B natural which he almost invariably substitutes for A as the first note of the fifth phrase of the tune is in Witt No. For G sharp as the second note of the first phrase Zahn reveals no earlier authority.
The short movement is instinct with the triumph of Easter. The semiquaver Pedal phrases may symbolize the rolling away of the sepulchral stone. In three of them the movement concludes with the following simple setting. It is omitted in the Novello Edition. A variant text of the movement without the concluding Choral is in B. A single ms. It differs from No. There are three mss. In general character it resembles the first movement of Cantata 38 c. Besides the above movements, B. The ms. A copy of it is also among the Schelble-Gleichauf mss.
It occurs in the Organ movements infra; Cantatas 7, c. Zahn does not reveal early authority for his variations of the orginal text G for A as the first note of the second phrase supra; B for A as the first note of the fifth phrase. Both details are found in Witt No. Here, as there, the quick flowing stream is the background of his picture. While the Cantata movement is a setting of the first stanza of the hymn, the conclusion may be hazarded that in No. Had the first been before him it is difficult to believe that he would have omitted to emphasize lines 7 and 8 in his customary chromatic idiom:.
Bach seeks rather to emphasize the contrast suggested in the first four lines of the seventh stanza:. Thus interpreted, the strong, reliant melody over which Jordan ripples acquires a new significance. Bach uses it in the Orgelbuchlein; Cantatas 23, c. His text follows Witt No.
Bach uses the tune, in its original form, in Cantata c. The movement is in the Kirnberger ms. In two of them the Prelude is specifically attributed to Bach. The melody occurs also in the St John Passion , Nos. Bach is not consistent in his statement of the melody. In the St John Passion he uses a Leipzig reconstruction of the tune which dates from 1. The movement is one of the Passiontide Preludes in the Orgelbuchlein. Its fierce intensity is inspired by the first stanza of the hymn, and particularly by the words.
An older text of the movement—that of the Mendelssohn Autograph 2 —is in B. In he published a Hebrew grammar at Augsburg and in settled at Wittenberg where Melanchthon was his pupil as a teacher of Greek and Hebrew. Later he taught Zwingli Hebrew at Zurich. He closely follows Witt No. The recurring Pedal rhythm, heavy, syncopated, pictures the weary exhaustion of the hanging and suffering Jesus.
Twenty years later Johannes Steurlein included the hymn, in six stanzas of four lines, in his Sieben und Zwantzigk Newe Geistliche Gesenge, Mit vier Stimmen Componiret und in druck der lieben Jugend zu gut verordnet Erfurt, As early as the whole hymn was attributed to Jakob Tapp d. On the other hand, the melody supra , which has borne the name of the hymn since , is generally attributed to Johannes Steurlein, son of the first Lutheran pastor at Schmalkalden, where he was born in About he became Town-clerk Edition: current; Page: [ ] of Wasungen, whence he passed in to Meiningen, of which he became Mayor.
He died there in He was an excellent musician and published various melodies and four-part settings by himself. Though the hymn is a prayer for help and comfort during the coming New Year the old year being referred to incidentally merely in the first stanza , Bach, influenced, perhaps, by the character of the melody, writes a threnody on the year that is gone, and wraps the tune in chromatic counterpoint expressing, in his idiom, poignant grief and regret. A chromatic grief motive is employed for the same purpose in the opening choruses of the B minor Mass and the St Matthew Passion.
Bach uses the melody only in the Organ movement infra. The movement is in the form of a Fughetta, and develops to the jubilant climax pictured in the last stanza of the hymn:. There are five copies of the movement in the Kirnberger, Voss, Forkel, and other Collections. The rhythm which pervades the movement uninterruptedly is one of two that Bach employs to express joy and exhilaration.
A movement upon the first half of the melody, i. It is the only one by Bach in the collection. It is noticeable that he writes G for F as the first note of the fourth line of the stanza the ninth note of the second line supra. Therein he follows Witt No. It is one of three there—the others being N.
In the present instance the device assists his love of literalness. Edition: current; Page: [ ] In the two inner parts that accompany the cantus and on the Pedal he introduces the first melodic period of the tune with constant iteration to suggest the rigidity of rule and dogma 1. This musical disorder depicts the moral state of the world before the law.
Then the law is revealed. It is represented by a majestic canon upon the melody of the Choral, running through the whole movement. It is a Fughetta, in which a counterpoint upon the first line of the melody is carefully stated ten times. Bach employs it elsewhere in Cantatas 18 and c. In the Organ movements he gives the sixth and last lines eight feet.
Bach interprets the opening line:. The basso ostinato consists of a series of almost irremediable stumbles or falls. Notice also the pathetic significance of the little phrase accompanying the first note of every line of the melody. But the close in A major enforces the lines:. The Fugue is among the miscellaneous movements and its form declares it an early work. Five other copies are in the Berlin Royal Library and Hauser mss. It bears no relation to a particular stanza. Only in the Organ movement does he exactly follow the text in the fifth line of the melody line 2 supra.
Observe how triumphantly Bach brings out on the Pedal p. Copies of the movement are among the Kirnberger, Krebs, and Walther mss. The author of the hymn, Erhart Hegenwalt, appears to have been a student and graduate of Wittenberg and a contemporary of Luther and Walther there. Bach uses it in the Organ movement infra and Choralgesange, No. On the other hand, Johann Kuhnau d. As a young man Bach probably knew this work. Always he substitutes E for D as the sixth note of the third line of the stanza line 2, note 7 supra. The innovation Edition: current; Page: [ ] dates from a text of and is found in Witt No.
The Choralgesange, No. In the single Organ movement in which he treats the melody Bach uses the original tune with the cadence. His text exactly follows Witt No. The movement, one of the Easter Preludes in the Orgelbuchlein, expresses the spirit and teaching of the festival. The Pedal, in bold intervals, sounds the message of resurrection, emphasized by the upward rush of the parts in the opening bars, while the animated quaver figure expresses joy.
Bach uses the melody in the Orgelbuchlein; Cantatas 9, 86, , , c. The movement is the last of the penitential Preludes in the Orgelbuchlein, and one of the only two completed in that section. Bach disregards the pointedly dogmatic character of the hymn and uses its opening statement. Such a treatment of it was the more congruous in that the tune itself is an old Easter Carol.
Its simplification was accomplished, presumably, by Walther himself. Outside the Organ movements infra Bach uses the tune in Cantatas 64, 91 ? His melodic text follows Witt No. In one Organ movement N. The variant is found in an early text , but is not in Witt. In the present movement the rhythm expresses restrained adoration.follow
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Archaeology of the Cross and Crucifix
An Organ accompaniment of the melody. Griepenkerl P. Both are now in the Berlin Royal Library. Krebs, too, preserved a sketch of it. The movement is a Fughetta upon the first line of the melody. A copy of it is in the Kirnberger, and others exist in the Schicht, Schelble, and Hauser mss. The movement is among the miscellaneous Preludes. Apparently only a single ms.
It is in the Royal Library, Berlin, and is described as faulty and comparatively modern. The treatment is formal. In he was appointed preacher to the community of the Bohemian Brethren at Jung Bunzlau and, in , became Bishop. He died at Jung Bunzlau in The hymn, accordingly, has Advent associations, though it is addressed to the Three Persons of the Trinity and directed to be sung after the Sermon. Spangenberg was born at Hardegsen, Hanover, in Bach uses the melody in the Organ movements infra, and Choralgesange, No.
His text is not invariable. In the Choralgesange he follows the text. The three Organ movements on the melody are in triple measure. Hence the quaver joy rhythm. A short Fughetta, among the miscellaneous Preludes, on the first line of the melody. Edition: current; Page: [ ] Three mss. In both a few introductory bars imitate the first line of the melody. Probably the present movement must be assigned to the same period. Its Tenor, it will be observed, very closely fits the first melody.
To himself must be attributed the improving change of the fifth note of the melody supra from B flat to C natural. In the four places in which he uses the phrase Bach only once in Cantata 28 c.
Elsewhere he writes D, as in the Orgelbuchlein, and as he found it in Witt. The movement is the first of the New Year Preludes in the Orgelbuchlein. Besides the formula of jubilation which Bach introduces, his emphasis of the first four notes of the cantus will be remarked. For the seventh note of the second line of the melody supra he always prefers A to F. The rhythmic motive which Bach introduces into the Edition: current; Page: [ ] Pedal expresses joyful adoration of the God-Child, to whose birth the Advent season looks forward.
A Fughetta upon the first line of the melody. The second line is introduced at the eleventh bar. Four mss. The melody is a simplified form of the Latin plainsong. Bach introduces portions of it into Cantatas 16, , , and , and treats it as a whole in the Organ movement infra:. The source of the text of the movement is an old ms. Educated at Jena, he became pastor at Ballstadt and died there in The hymn was written for the Feast of the Purification, but was also in use for the Dying, in which mood Bach treats it.
Johann Michael Altenburg, the composer of the melody, was born at Alach, near Erfurt, in His life was spent in and round Erfurt as teacher Edition: current; Page: [ ] and pastor. He was a good musician and at one time was precentor in Erfurt. Bach, however, was not the author of the reconstruction. In the Gotha Cantional of the positions of the descant and Quinta vox of are reversed, the latter becoming the melody. His version passed into the Hymn-books of Telemann , Konig , and Freylinghausen His variation of the second phrase seemingly is his own. Bach uses the tune only in the Orgelbuchlein.
The movement represents the Feast of the Purification in the Orgelbuchlein. Bach depicts the faltering footsteps of the aged Simeon stanza iii by means of a syncopated and halting Pedal rhythm. It was repeated, with the melody supra Edition: current; Page: [ ] and the fourth stanza, in the Cantionale Sacrum Gotha, It was in use in Saxony on all Sundays and festivals.
Among them No. It occurs among several old hymn tunes, and, no doubt, dates from an older period than the volume in which it first appears. Their differing moods and appropriateness to a particular stanza support the assumption that Bach had the text of the hymn before him and followed it closely. The four movements are discussed in the order of their assumed association with the hymn text:.
The movement, one of the miscellaneous Preludes, is quiet and reflective in mood. The undulations of melodic treatment permit the conjecture that Bach had in mind the words of the second stanza:. Eight mss. The movement is one of the Eighteen Chorals, a Trio upon the melody, jubilant in mood and attuned to the third stanza of the hymn:. Spitta points out 1 that Bach follows Pachelbel here in forming a theme out of the opening phrase of the cantus and, after developing it adequately, bringing in the complete melody on the Pedal. The Berlin Royal Library has a third ms.
An Organ accompaniment of the tune. Eight years later it was attached to the tune supra. Bach uses the tune in association with all three hymns, in the Organ movement infra; Cantatas 25, , , , c. He regularly substitutes C for G as the penultimate note of the melody. For the fourth note in the fourth phrase the fifth note in line 2 supra he very rarely only in Cantatas , , St Matthew Passion, No.
For both innovations there is early sanction; for the first, a text of ; for the second, a text of Bach occasionally introduces poignant variations of the original text in the second phrase of the melody notes supra.
SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE AUTHORS.
The fact affords a clue to the interpretation of the single Organ movement in which the melody occurs:. Spitta 2 holds the movement to have been composed during the Weimar period. Copies of it are among the Krebs and Walther mss. Whether he wrote it cannot be stated positively. Oder, Edition: current; Page: [ ] where Gesius at that time was Cantor. The tune appears in for the first time and certainly was composed by Gesius himself.
In the Choralgesange the fourth and last phrases of the tune do not follow the original. The Pedal subject, as Schweitzer points out 2 , is almost ferocious in its representation of the risen Christ spurning his foes as though He were treading the wine-press. Released in , he conducted a school at Annaberg until about The ballad was published as a broadsheet in and was included in the Rostock Hymn-book of The first of the three melodies supra was attached to it there.
The author of the tune is not known. It is found in many forms in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century Hymn-books and probably is of secular origin. The earliest approximation to the form in which Bach knew it is found in supra. From the first half of the tune definitely took the form Bach uses. For the second part of the melody he is not consistent. In the Orgelbuchlein he follows the text the F sharp that ends his sixth line is as old as The low F sharp on the Pedal in the last bar is an emendation by Bach himself.
In the Mendelssohn Autograph he wrote 1. Bach introduces it into the orchestral accompaniment of Cantata The D natural which he substitutes for F natural as the fourth note of the melody supra has early sanction. His variant of the opening of the second line of the stanza notes of line 2 supra follows a reconstruction of the melody which Edition: current; Page: [ ] became the accepted form of the tune in Hymn-books after , when it first appears.
The movement treats in fugue the five phrases of the cantus. The B. There does not appear to be any close relation between it and the stanzas of the hymn. Five of the six mss. It is omitted from the Novello Edition, and printed in P. The two arrangements come from different sources. The second B occurs in a much later text and is misleadingly described in the B. Both settings are plain four-part harmonizations of the tune, of greater simplicity than that appended to No.
It may be conjectured that, when he wrote it, Bach had before him particularly the first stanza of the hymn.
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His treatment of the melody of the first two lines of the stanza conveys a wistfulness of appeal that may have been suggested by the words. Underneath this petition the Pedal asserts a firm and confident rhythm which seems to express the. In the sixteenth century two tunes attached themselves to it, both of which Bach uses. The second of the two melodies is used in this Fughetta. His melodic text is practically invariable and shows marked divergencies from the form.
His first phrase is found in Witt No. His closing cadence is in Schein He differs from Witt in his treatment of phrases 4 and 5, and his version is not traceable in Zahn. Perhaps it is his own. Only in the Fughetta N. In this movement, as in No. It exhibits a mood of confidence and trust which this happy Fughetta reflects. Copies of it are among the Kirnberger, Voss, and Oley mss. The hymn, which appears without any indication of its authorship, has been attributed to Lindemann himself, but cannot positively be regarded as his.
He died after The hymn passed into general use as a Christmas hymn. The melody supra , which at least from has been regarded as proper to the hymn, is by Giovanni Giacomo Gastoldi. He was born at Caravaggio circa , and was successively Capellmeister at Mantua and Milan He died at Milan in The New Year Prelude pulses with joy, the basso ostinato being particularly animated.
The cantus is not clearly laid out in the movement. The first statement of the first half of the tune begins at bar 4 of the middle stave on page 45 of the Novello Edition and ends on bar 5 of the third stave. The repetition of the first half begins at bar 4 of the middle stave on page 46 and ends at the first bar on page The first statement of the second half of the tune begins at bar 3 of the middle stave of page 47 and ends at the first bar of the second stave on page The second statement of the second half begins at the second bar of the middle stave of page The Prelude, as Spitta points out 2 , is a free handling of the melody in the manner of Bohm.
Its brilliant executive requirements are somewhat foreign to the collection in which it occurs.
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It is found in various forms, of from three to eight stanzas in length. Besides a four-part setting of it in Choralgesange, No. In the original Autograph the Pedal part Edition: current; Page: [ ] is written for an 8ft. A Pedal of that natural compass was unusual then and remains unusual now. Spitta infers 1 that Bach used the Weimar Castle 4ft. Cornet stop on the Pedals. A brilliant treatment of the melody, inspired, it is impossible to doubt, by the third stanza of the hymn, a vision of the heavenly halls:. But from the third line the flood of ornate imagery which is poured in among them can no longer be held back.
It spreads out under cover of the upper part, becomes visible during the pauses between the sections, sometimes makes its way to the highest part, overspreading the melody for a little space; then, hurried on into triplets, it surges from the depths with added force, and returns to calm only on the last line but one, where the master restores the peace that ruled at the beginning, and builds up at last a seven-part harmony on the tonic pedal, which is held through several bars.
The movement comes to us through a ms. Krebs also preserved a sketch of it. Bach uses it in Cantatas 12, 64, 81, 87 c. A collation of his texts proves Bach to have used at different times three forms of the melody. As the Motett and Cantata were composed in , this version of the melody may be attributed to Bach himself, a deduction supported by the circumstance that it is printed for the first time in the Hymn-book of his Leipzig contemporary Georg Philipp Telemann.
In Cantatas 64 and 87, the latter of which is assigned conjecturally to , Bach employs a third form, whose source is not disclosed, the first part of which reverts to his earlier pre-Leipzig use. The movement is a Fantasia, which Schweitzer 1 regards as a youthful work. It does not seem to be related to any particular stanza of the hymn. Seven mss. A variant reading is in B. Both are the Tenor of a four-part setting probably composed by Walther himself. In the Enchiridion only the second tune is found.
Its source is not determined. Bach uses the Klug melody in the Organ movement infra and Choralgesange, No. The assertive, jubilant figure in the accompaniment expresses the triumph of which the first stanza of the hymn sings. Luther and his musical helper, Johann Walther, appear to have discarded the old melody of the Latin hymn.
The tune is attributed, without strong evidence, to Luther himself. In Choralgesange, No. His version of the second and third phrases differs from the original and is found in Witt No. The melody appears to have been very dear to Bach. The striding and confident theme inculcates stedfast faith in the power of the sacrament to forgive sin.
We know that Luther was opposed to the rationalism of Zwingli, who regarded the sacramental words as symbolical and the whole celebration as a simple ceremony of remembrance. To Luther the essence of the doctrine of the sacrament was faith in a real change in the elements, in virtue of which the Communion gives remission of sins. Edition: current; Page: [ ] Fugal in form, and based on the first phrase of the melody only, it is contemplative in mood, and seems to follow No. When, eight or nine years after the Clavierubung was published, Bach included two movements upon the melody among the Eighteen Chorals, he approached the hymn from a different standpoint.
In the present movement he selects from each of the four lines of the first stanza a particular word for illustration:. They are woven above and below the third phrase of the cantus and reach their climax in the thirty-seventh bar. At bar thirty-eight the fourth phrase of the cantus is introduced by a short figure.
The movement must have been one of the last Bach revised. Schweitzer 2 points to the influence of Buxtehude. It cannot be without design that Bach devotes the last nine bars of the movement to an elaboration of the fourth phrase of the cantus. Consequently he emphasizes the line:. A reconstruction of the melody supra appeared in the Berlin Praxis pietatis melica of the same year. Bach uses the Praxis version invariably, in Cantata , Choralgesange, No. Invariably he substitutes G for A as the third note of the second bar of the melody supra , an innovation found in Freylinghausen As his other readings differ in that passage, they may Edition: current; Page: [ ] perhaps be regarded as his own.
Luise Henriette, to whom the hymn is attributed, was born at the Hague in She died in Another ms. The similarity of its Bass to that of the four-part setting in the Choralgesange suggests that they were written in close association. Spitta 1 finds the movement out of place among Preludes in which Bach undertook to treat the Pedal uniformly obbligato throughout. He regards it as the fragment of a movement conceived on a much bigger scale—in fact, an introduction to No. An older reading of the movement is in P. The movement is among the Eighteen Chorals and is the Orgelbuchlein Prelude with the addition of another verse, in which the cantus is on the Pedal.
Its treatment suggests that Bach had in mind Acts ii. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire. In Cantatas 59 and ? There is also an abbreviated treatment of the Edition: current; Page: [ ] melody in Cantata In the Organ movements he invariably uses the cadence supra somewhat altered, in a form which dates from supra. The Fantasia is No. An earlier, perhaps the original, text is printed in P. Two mss. The movement, a treatment of the cantus phrase by phrase, is No. An older version of the movement is in P.
Zahn No. He died in Bach uses the melody in Cantatas 57, c. All of these works belong to his later Leipzig years. But though his form of the Edition: current; Page: [ ] melody is fundamentally uniform, he treats it with a freedom which its spirited character invited. The melody is a literal adaptation of the Latin plainsong. It is printed supra from the Teutsch Kirchenamt Erfurt, , where it is set to other words.
The two sets of three movements, the one long N. The shorter set is of a different texture, written for the manuals only, and in another mood. Clausnitzer was born at Thum, in Saxony, in Upon the conclusion of peace in he was appointed pastor at Weiden, where he died in For the remaining phrases, though his text generally conforms to the reconstruction, Bach introduces into all of them variants which, generally, have their authority in Leipzig use.
The five melodic texts are discussed in the sections infra. The melody appears twice, among the Trinity hymns, in the Orgelbuchlein. It is the only tune introduced more than once into that work, and the significance of the fact has been pointed out in the Introduction to this volume. Making allowance for the free embellishments Bach introduces, the cantus exactly follows the reconstruction of , excepting the last note of the first phrase of the tune, which is C natural intead of A.
This improvement is found in Witt No. Both are in the key of G major. The authorities for the movement are as in No. This is a simple four-part setting in two verses. The first half of its melodic text exactly conforms to the reconstruction. The second half of it follows Vetter.
Archæology of the Cross and Crucifix
The melody is treated in two Organ movements. The imminence of Christmas, rather than the text of the hymn, moves Bach to an expression of fervent devotion by means of a characteristic rhythm cf. A brief Fughetta, for the manuals, upon the first line of the cantus stated in free form. A copy of the movement is among the Kirnberger mss. There are three other mss. The tune supra had appeared six years earlier in association with another hymn by Herman. In both hymns the fourth line of the stanza is repeated.
Bach uses the melody in Cantatas and ? His text generally differs from that of in phrases 2 and 4. His version of both is adumbrated in texts dated and The source of his variation of that line elsewhere is not ascertained. An unimportant modification of the closing cadence occurs in Cantata ? Bach introduces into the movement, therefore, a characteristic rhythm of joy. A brilliant Organ accompaniment of the melody, inspired by stanza viii, more literally translated thus:.
Bach buries the second phrase of the cantus under harmonies soaring heavenward followed by a downward rush of whirling notes, typifying dispersal of the forces that hitherto barred the Gate of Life. The second phrase of the melody is in a form Bach does not use elsewhere. Bach invariably associates the two, in the Organ movements infra, Cantata 10, and the Latin Magnificat No. There are two harmonizations of the melody in Choralgesange, Nos. In the Magnificat? In the present movement the care-free subject sung by the two voices displays the mood of ransomed Israel. Spitta points out 1 , in regard to this sublime Fugue, that in it Bach illustrates the Pachelbel form at its highest expression, prefacing the melody, treated with brilliant counterpoint, by a Fugue constructed on the first line of it.
Edition quotes two mss. It is probable that the tune was composed by Luther himself. His text differs from the original form supra only in the substitution of B flat for B natural as the second note of the third line supra, and of B natural for A natural as the first note of the second line supra. Bach therefore accompanies the cantus throughout with the rhythm expressive of Edition: current; Page: [ ] joy.
It has been assigned also to Rinkart himself and to Luca Marenzio. In addition to the Organ movement infra, Bach uses the melody in Cantatas 79, c. His versions of the second and last lines of the melody differ from the form and are found in Witt No. The movement, the seventh of the Eighteen Chorals, is both a splendid exercise in the Pachelbel form and a jubilant musical expression of the triumphant hymn 2.
In the Organ movement infra the names of both hymns are attached to the tune. It occurs also in the Christmas Oratorio , No. His variants are found in late sixteenth century texts and also in Witt No. The third phrase of the tune in Hymns Ancient and Modern, No. Bach occasionally gives a festive treatment to the Advent tunes in anticipation of Christmas. Four copies of the movement survive, in the Fischhof and Oley mss. Besides the Organ works infra, the melody occurs in Cantatas 36, 61, and 62 c.
The modification is not found in Witt No. It produces the interval Edition: current; Page: [ ] of a diminished fourth, which is very significant of suffering cf.
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- Demonglass (Hex Hall, Book 2).
There are five Organ movements on the melody—one in the Orgelbuchlein, three among the Eighteen Chorals, and one among the miscellaneous Preludes. The three movements are the ninth, tenth, and eleventh numbers of the Eighteen Chorals. The first is in the Buxtehude form and the phrases of the cantus are unusually prolonged. The second is a Trio, which needs nothing but a freely invented Edition: current; Page: [ ] theme to place it in the category of the Choral Fantasia. It therefore forms a bridge between the first and the third, which is a Choral Fantasia.
They illustrate the hymn as a whole rather than any particular stanza. Older readings of all are in P. A Fughetta, on the first phrase of the melody, among the miscellaneous Preludes. Copies of the movement are in the Kirnberger and Schelble-Gleichauf mss. Elsewhere it occurs only in the Organ works. His version of the last two phrases of the tune is not uniform. In the Organ Partite infra it approximates significantly to a Hamburg text of The melody is treated in a series of nine Partite, or Variations. Parry finds in them an air of ingenuous simplicity that proves them to be very early compositions 3.
It is the more interesting to find the youthful Bach illustrating in some of them the text of the hymn, the number of whose stanzas corresponds with the number of Partite. Partita I may be regarded either as an introduction to stanza i, or perhaps as a broad expression of the opening line. The second stanza hardly invites pictorial treatment. Stanza iii, like its predecessor, does not appear to have drawn the juvenile Bach to attempt illustration. By similar means a quarter of a century later, in the last number of the St Matthew Passion, he Edition: current; Page: [ ] pictured the lowering of the dead Christ to the tomb.
The latter is in use particularly in North Germany and Bach uses it with textual variations, chiefly in the fourth phrase of the tune. In the second of them No. The movement is the first of the Passiontide Preludes in the Orgelbuchlein. The cantus is accompanied by a sequence of sobbing notes slurred in pairs. The Prelude, the sixth of the Eighteen Chorals, is a setting of the three stanzas of the hymn.
In Verses 1 and 2 Bach does not attempt word painting. But at bar 19 N. With the entry of the last phrase of the cantus N. The final ascending cadence may be pictured as the Heavenward flight of the angelic messengers. His text is practically uniform and close to that of The B naturals which replace B flat as the penultimate notes of bars 1 and 2 supra are in Witt No. It is written upon the first stanza of the hymn, whose last line. Of the original there is a text printed in 2. The second supra , found in , is the descant of a four-part setting in which the original tune appears as the Tenor.
Bach uses it in Cantata 65 and a single movement infra. His text is Edition: current; Page: [ ] invariable, except that in the latter he substitutes F sharp for F natural as the ninth note of the second line supra. Though the hymn stands there as a general introduction to the festival, its central incident is the visit of the three Kings from the East and their homage.
Bach seemingly sets himself to paint stanza iv. In bars the bearer of incense approaches the manger. The first two Pedal notes mark his deep obeisance to the Infant. In bars the myrrh giver performs his duty in a similar manner. In bars the bearer of gold makes his obeisance and gift. In the last six bars bar 12—end the Three Kings withdraw, making obeisance at every step, and their deepest curtsey as they leave the Presence.
An alternative interpretation of the movement as a lullaby is not supported by the character of the music. Bach uses the melody in Cantata c. His text of it is practically invariable. Of his variation of bars 4 and 5 supra Zahn does not reveal an earlier instance. The movement is the fourth of the Eighteen Chorals and, as is invariably the case when the words of the hymn stirred Bach to deep emotion, the cantus is treated very freely. He retards, embellishes, and emphasizes it as if to make it interpret the Holy of Holies of his thoughts. The text of the second part of the tune differs conspicuously from that which Bach uses elsewhere.
Five mss. It is also attributed to Gottfried August Homilius Two stanzas, improbably by Keimann, were added to his original five in the Gotha Geistlichen Gesang-Buchlein of A set of Partite or Choral Variations on the melody. There are eleven movements. Schweitzer 1 asserts inaccurately that the hymn has eleven stanzas, and infers that the numerical correspondence of movements and stanzas is intentional. In fact the original hymn contained five stanzas, and occasionally is found in a seven-stanza form. In eleven stanzas it is not known.
Spitta divides the eleven movements into three groups which, he gives grounds for supposing, Bach wrote at different times. They are as follows 2 :. Group I. They display the true Partita form, in which the cantus is completely or partially absorbed by the ornament.
Group II. All but one of them Variation V have an obbligato pedal. If Spitta is correct, the Partite were composed by Bach at three periods, in two of which he set himself to produce five movements on the melody. The hymn itself has five stanzas. But there is no evidence of any intimate relation between them and the Partite. The former contains only Partite 1, 2, 4, The latter places Partita 7 before Partita 6.
The Voss, Westphal, Forkel mss. His text is practically invariable. The substitution of C natural for A as the eleventh note of the first phrase of the tune is found in a Gotha text of Edition: current; Page: [ ] and Witt No. Excepting N. The innovation dates from The movement, perhaps, is a treatment of the first stanza of the hymn, the ascending final cadence being inspired by the words:. The movement has the rhythm of a funeral march. But the mood is joyful and reflects that of the second half of stanza i rather than its opening valediction. Three mss. The movement is in the Catechism section of the second part of the Orgelbuchlein.
Spitta, remarking 2 that the melody appears against three parts in counterpoint in canon on the octave, speculates that Bach thereby intended to symbolize the childlike obedience with which the Christian appropriates the prayer prescribed by Christ Himself. The device would appear unduly complicated for the conveyance of that impression. It is, on the whole, safer to draw attention to the fact that the simple, unadorned cantus in canon on the octave is a thread in a larger fabric woven by 1 an exceptionally embellished presentment of the cantus in canon on the fifth , and 2 a Pedal part markedly contrasted in character.
The embellished, ruminative version of the cantus expresses the intimate spirit of prayer; and the firm, reliant Pedal part typifies the faith without which prayer is vain. In the shorter movement the cantus is unadorned and, alone among the Clavierubung Choral movements, is presented without interludes. In addition to the above movement, B.
Both are among the Kirnberger mss. Bach uses it in the Christmas Oratorio , Nos. His text is invariable and conforms to the original except in one detail: for the fifth note of the last phrase he takes the melody up Edition: current; Page: [ ] to D supra. By ascending and descending scale passages Bach indicates the presence of the heavenly host.
The movement is a Fughetta, for the manuals, on the first two phrases of the melody. Five copies of the movement, an early work, are extant, one of them in the Kirnberger Collection, another in the Schicht mss. A Fugue on the melody, phrase by phrase, without attempt at pictorial treatment. There are seven texts of the movement, a youthful work, in the Kirnberger, Schelble, and other collections. An Organ accompaniment of the melody exhibiting the same pictorial treatment as in Edition: current; Page: [ ] Nos.
The Canonic Variations upon the melody have been discussed already in the Introduction 1. They are five in number and exhibit the pictorial treatment already remarked in Nos. His distinctive first phrase varying notes supra is in Witt No. The brilliant scale passages represent the descending and ascending angels. The Pedal notes, too, provide a ladder. It occurs in Cantatas 11, 73, c. It is not in Witt No. The movement is the eighth of the Eighteen Chorals. The impression of intense feeling is conveyed by his ruminative treatment of the melody in the opening bars.
An older text of the movement is in P. Bach uses the tune in Cantata and in the Organ movement infra. The movement is a setting of the second stanza of the hymn. The happy, smooth-running obbligato illustrates the words:. The melody supra is by Louis Bourgeois. The tune does not occur in Bach elsewhere than in the Organ works infra. Edition: current; Page: [ ] It will be noticed that Bach constantly states and inverts the opening four notes of the cantus,. The movement is the last of the Eighteen Chorals.
Related Da Jesus an dem Kreuze standt (As Jesus Stood Beside the Cross)
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