Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books)

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Stenger, emeritus professor of physics and astronomy, Univ. Scott Lilienfeld, psychologist, Emory Univ. Corne lis de Jager, professor of astrophysics, Univ. CarolTavris,psychologistand author. LosAngeles, Calif. Antony Flew, philosopher, Reading Univ. Barbara Forrest, professor of philosophy, Southeastern Louisiana Univ.

Thomas Gilovich, psychologist, Cornell Univ. Canadian funds drawn on a U. Or you may send a fax request to me editor. Articles, reporcs, reviews. Box Amherst, NY Or call roll-free outside me U. Old address as well as new are necessary for change of subscriber's address, with six weeks advance noletters, books for review, and editorial inquiries should be addressed co Kendrick Fra-.

A scientific analysis separates reliable nutrition facts from nutritional pseudoscience and false opinion. Blackmore John R. Cole Kenneth L. Feder Barry Karr E. Krupp Scott O. Lilienfeld David F. Marks Jay M. Pasachoff Eugenie Scott Richard Wiseman. It always puzzles me. We are a magazine for science and reason. That is our subtitle. We publish articles on all manner of topics that generally fit into that broad rubric. If there is strong public interest or some intellectual meat preferably both in a topic related to science and reason-usually involving a gap berween the scientific evidence about a topic and the public perception of it-and we think we have something important to add, we'll write about it.

The question most often comes when we take on a new subject not encountered in our pages before three recent examples: AlDS denialism, animal-rights extremism, and climate change and its opponents. The question has arisen frequently as we expanded over the decades to cover areas not rypically considered paranormal, fringe-science, or pseudoscience. But I guess I should also have expected it when we returned in a recent issue to one of the prororypical core targets of classic scientific skepticism: the new wave of interest in UFOs.

No one cares anymore about UFOs or aliens, some said. How could we write about such a trivial subject when the world's economies are collapsing and this crisis cries out for critical examination to see one letter in this issue. Well, first, our issue was planned before the real economic plunge occurred. Second, yes, more skepticism would have definitely helped the world see the dangers in the financial bubble.

We'll welcome. Third, no single SI issue can convey the breadth of our interests. Over the years we have investigated many hundreds maybe thousands of specific topics. We'll continue to do so. But if you don't think the world is awash with nonsense about UFOs and aliens, you aren't paying attention to the blogs and Web sites of the UFO subculture. In recent weeks especially since we posted some of its contents on our Web site , they have been pilloring the authors of our special issue.

Personal, ad hominem attacks, not substantive responses, seem the norm in this arena. It is clear we touched a nerve-simply by bringing informed skepticism to an area generally left to the proponents and believers. That's what we do. No matter the topic. And we cover the entire spectrum of seriousness, from the philosophically and pragmatically consequent to "lesser" subjects that scientists and academics rypically ignore but that fascinate the general public, who would otherwise be left with only sensationalized and unexamined stories and claims.

Oberg Robert Sheaffer David E. In our cover article, medical professor Reynold Spector presents a thorough yet readable examination of science and pseudoscience in nutrition research and practice. His main target is well-intended but inadequate scientific studies that use inappropriate methods and thereby frequently yield wrong or misleading answers. Read his article and you will see that such flawed studies-many of which are published in reputable scientific journals and gain wide media attention-are far more common than you might think.

Andrew Wakefield, the researcher who in sparked the public controversy over whether the MMR mumps measles and rubella vaccine is linked to autism, may have faked his data. Wakefield and others published a small study of only twelve subjects in The Lancet claiming it was evidence for a link between the MMR vaccine and autism Wakefield As a result, compliance with the MMR dropped from 92 percent in the U. Fears have also spread to the U. Wakefield's paper has already been thoroughly discredited, and subsequent studies have shown convincingly that there is a lack of association between MMR or vaccines in general and autism.

For example, one of the key components of Wakefield's theory is that autism is linked to gastrointestinal disorders in some children, potentially allowing the measles virus from the vaccine to enter the bloodstream and wreak havoc. Hornig found no correlation between MMR and autism and also did not find the measles virus in the guts of children with autism and GI complaints, directly contradicting Wakefield.

In , ten of Wakefield's coauthors withdrew their names from the original publication, and The Lancets editors published a retraction, citing undisclosed conflicts of interest by Wakefield Lancet Wakefield did not disclose a large consulting fee he received from attorneys representing clients suing over claims that their children's autism was caused by MMR.

In fact, eleven of the twelve children in Wakefield's study were parr of the litigation. Further, nine months prior to publishing the study, Wakefield applied for a patent for a new MMR. Although the research paper claimed that problems came on within days of the jab, in only one case did medical records suggest this was true, and in many of the cases medical concerns had been raised before the children were vaccinated. Hospital pathologists, looking for inflammatory bowel disease, reported in the majority of cases that the gut was normal.

This was then reviewed and The Lancet paper showed them as abnormal" Deer Andrew Wakefield remains under investigation by the U. He remains unrepemant about his claims and has since moved to America, where he runs the Thoughtful House autism center in Austin, Texas. Andrew Wakefield attending the G. He therefore stood to make phenomenal profits from scares over the current vaccine's safety Deer Investigativejournalist Brian Deer has been putting the pieces of the Wakefield puzzle together for severalyears now. His investigations recently uncovered evidence that Wakefieldmay alsohave faked his original data.

Deer, B. MMR doctor Andrew Wakefield fixed data on autism. Times Online, February 8. Available online at www. The Wakefield Factor. Hornig, M, T. Briese, T. Buie, M. Bauman, G. Lauwers, U. Siemerzki, K. Hummel, P. A Rota, W]. Bellini, ]. Alden, L. Pickering, WI. Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism wirh enteropathy: A case-control study. A statement by the editors of The Lancet. The Lancet Wakefield, A]. Murch, A. Anthony, ]. Linnell, D. Casson, M. Malik, M. Berelowitz, A. Dhillon, M. A Thomson, P.

Harvey, A. Valentine, S. Davies, and ]. Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. More Studies Reject Vaccine-Autism Link As if more scientific support was needed, a new review of the evidence has again shown no link between vaccines and autism. And a new study from Italy bolsters the case even further.

Gerber and Paul A. Offit of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia published a reviewin the February 15 Clinical Infectious Diseases of twenty peer-reviewed scientific studies published between and The studies show no connection. The authors examined three specific claims some have proposed: the combination measles-mumps-rubella vaccine causes autism by damaging the intestinal lining; the mercury-containing preservative thimerosal, formerly in some vaccines, is toxic to the central nervous system; and the simultaneous administration of multiple vaccinesoverwhelmsor weakens the nervous system.

They reviewed the relevant epidemiological evidence and found no support for these claims. In one study, for instance, researchers in England evaluated autistic children born from through No change in the rates of autism diagnoses after the introduction of the MMR vaccine was observed. A study in Denmark compared the incidence of autism in children who had received two different levels of thimerosal or no thimerosal at all. There was no relationship between thimerosal exposure and autism.

On the third claim, they note that vaccines "do not overwhelm the immune system MMR vaccine causes autism," conclude Gerber and Offit. The large size of the studied populations has afforded a level of statistical power sufficient to detect even rare associations. Further studies on the cause or causes of autism should focus on more-promising leads. Thousands of healthy Italian babies in the early s were given two different amounts of thimerosal as part of their routine vaccinations.

Ten yearslater, 1, of those children were identified and given a battery of brain-function tests. Researchersfound small differences in only two of twenty-four measurements, and "they might be attributable to chance," they said. Only one case of autism was found, and that was in the group with the lower thimerosal. Biomedical scientists in all from seventeen countries have published a letter in a prominent scientific journal saying Gallo deservesequal credit.

And a major event is planned in May honoring Gallo on the twenty-fifth anniversary of his co-discovery. He is generally credited as a co-discover of the HN. In a letter titled "Unsung Hero Robert C. Gallo" Science, , , the international group of scientists say that while Nobel Prize recipients Francoise Barre-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier "fully deserve the award, it is equally important to recognize" Gallo's contributions.

These contributions. Without Gallo's contributions, the relevanceof the virus to AIDS might not have been recognized and many thousands more lives would have been lost. Given the enormous impact of these developments on the lives of countless thousands globally,Gallo's contributions should not go unrecognized. An endnote to the Science letter says the letter-writinginitiativewas done independently of Gallo'sinfluence. Poli says he and the letter writers, many of them leaders in the HN field, felt the obel committee had an unfortunate anti-Galle bias.

To commemorate the discovery, the University of Maryland School of Medicine is hosting a threeday celebratory event in Baltimore May Institute, where Gallo did his research, co-sponsor. Poli told SI he has been invited as a speaker to the celebration. Selective Memory at Work When Patients 'Predict' Own Death Can medical patients predict their own deaths using some fancy type of "insight" that is more accurate than the medical tests and expertise of physicians?

The answer is yes, according to an article by Dr. Jauhar describes just twO instances in his practice where patients who were not expected to die said that they expected to die and, some time later, did exactly that, thus suggesting to Jauhar that patients "have a sixth sense about their own deaths. At one point he said, "I am going to die here. But then he became sicker. The second case was that of a woman who "told us calmly on morning rounds mat she had a feeling she was going to die mat day. Neither of these cases seems particularly surprising. Both patients were already in the hospital and not for trivial reasons.

Both must have been anxious. Undoubtedly many patients in such situations express anxiety and fear of death, even when they are not expected to die. When, as expected, they do not die, it's no big deal and isn't remembered. But when such a patient does die, it's a notable event and is remembered. This type of selective memory is an important cause of belief in many nonexistent phenomena.

Another from the medical arena is the belief that more babies are born when the moon is full. This is simply false. There have never been any well-done studies that suppOrt such a belief So from whence did the belief spring? Selective memory on the part of maternity-room personnel. When mere happens to be a lot of births during a full moon, it is noted and remembered. Neither slow nights when the moon was full nor busy nights when it wasn't are taken into account as evidence against the relationship.

Selective memory also plays an important role in the belief in such things as astrology, biorhythm theory, prophetic dreams, and the like. But memory is not only selective, it is constructive. The physician who believes in the prophetic abilities of patients to foretell their own deaths will be very likely to misremember patients' comments as more prophetic man they actually were.

Any claim that is based only on such selective memories should be viewed with great suspicion. E-mail address: TerenceHines aol. The media interest began with a case in which a young woman was stripped naked, bound and gagged, tied to a log, and set on fire by a band of villagers. She burned to death in the blaze. Local authorities believe she was suspected of being a witch.

Wimin days, a man was accused of using magic to kill anomer. Pronounced guilty by an ad hoc court, the man was slashed to death with bush knives by an angry mob. Belief in witchcraft is rampant in rural Papua New Guinea, and murder for suspected sorcery is a common practice. In , some fifty people were victims of witchcraft-related murder in the Highlands provinces.

While there are no exact fIgures, many incidents occur in remote areas and remain unreported. When a death occurs, the locals often close ranks and refuse to cooperate with the authorities. Accused of being a witch by the local community after all of her children and her husband died, this Tanzanian woman was attacked by a man with a machete who chopped off her arm. This modern witch craze is worldwide. There are scattered cases in Europe, especiallyin the United Kingdom, and even in Australia. The practice also exists in America. Last year there were two reports of witchcraft-related murder trials in the.

Voodoo, santeria, animal sacrifice, and other forms of "black magic" are still practiced in some parts of the country, particularly in communities in Miami and ew Orleans. Belief in sorcery is strongly rooted in Papua New Guinea. Many believe in the existence of sangumas, witches, sorcerers, or people with magical powers. Sangumas are accused of invoking curses, hexes, and spells to bring misfortune to their villages. These victims are held responsible for occurrences where natural explanations can be offered but aren't recognized. The legal proceedings that follow the accusation are a sham.

The victims are usually tried by church pastors and unqualified officialspresiding over a kangaroo court. The inevitablepunishment is execution, performed immediately in a public place by a frenzied group of tribespeople. Victims are sometimes hanged, stoned, shot, beheaded, butchered, buried alive, or burned at the stake after being doused with gasoline and set on fire.

Others escape death but suffer attempted murder, sexual abuse, and torture, often to extract a confession. Disturbingly, accusations of witchcraft are not invariably indicative of superstitious belief Sometimes there are ulterior motives underlying the claims. Some deaths are crimes of vengeance or of an accuser seeking resolution in an ownership dispute.

Some murders are drug-related. In a real-life version of Arthur Miller's The Crucible, some victims have violated social taboos and are guilty of socially stigmatized behavior, such as infidelity unmarried pregnancy, or homosexuality. To shift blame and avoid punishment for real crimes, charges are often laid against innocent individuals or even animals. In Kwara,. A literal scapegoat, it is claimed that the human culprit transformed magically into a goat to escape arrest.

Papua New Guinea is in dire need of skepticism, education, and legal reform. It appears that the latter is finally happening. These latest horrific killings, and no doubt the ensuing media outrage, have prompted the country's Constitutional Reviewand Law Reform Commission to create new laws to prevent or at least reduce witchcraft-related deaths.

Experimental Ethics

Henry Gordon invented this phrase to use as an incantation in his magic, just as he created or taught himself everything he needed in life. They were spoken again by his granddaughter Sandra at his funeral in January.

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Gordon-magician, skeptic, columnist, broadcaster, entrepreneur, co-founder of the Ontario Skeptics, and fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry-died January 24, , at the age of eighty-nine. In Montreal, Henry was a young man interested in radio repair and Morse code. Zita, Henry's then-girlfriend and later beautiful assistant in his magic shows, remembers walking down St. Catherine Street.

The Royal Canadian Air Force was advertising its need for radio operators.

Henry quickly enlisted and was sent to help start an air training camp in western Canada. A terrific writer, he proposed through the mail. Henry was honorably discharged from the service in December With his knowledge of electronics and his entrepreneurial spirit, he built the first recording studio open to the public in Montreal.

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In the exciting atmosphere of the s, it seemed appropriate to experiment by opening the first party supply store in the city. It was a great success. He opened a school for magic in the store, which thrived for nineteen years. Having alwaysreferred to magic as a fine art and to himself as an honest fraud, he became velY annoyed by the famous magicians who cashed in on the psychedelicperiod by callingthemselvespsychics and destroying the integrity of magic.

One of the earliest debunkers, in the s he with Zira performed magic and debunking on cruiseships. He went on to write a regular column called "Debunking" for the Toronto Stars Sunday paper. Editor Gerry Hall, who wanted to. Geller attempted to perform his well-known trick of moving a compassneedle by waving his hands. After much grunting,. He was well-known internationally for his exposures of Uri Geller, Shirley MacLaine, and other paranormal practitioners in his books, articles, and television appearances.

His wnung and skepticism fed on each other. Meanwhile, his writings attracted a great many people-especially srudents-into the movement. Gellerhad to giveup. Henry had strapped a much stronger magnet to his knee. Another high point occurred when Henry appeared at Montreal's popular Saidye Bronfman Theatre disguised as psychic Elchonen. He fooled the audience and then later returned on stage as himself. Some asked to have their money refunded, but many returned to hear Henry speak on the paranormal. These incidents, as well as many of. For a more rationaL tomorrow For them knowledge is the greatest adventure.

Today the Center for Inquiry movement strives to keep the adventure of knowledge accessible to all. To defend science, reason, freedom of inquiry, and human values in an ever-changing world, we must adopt new methods To realize tomorrow's ambitious goals, we must expand our organization. In this new phase the focus turns to: Outreach and education: publishing, media relations, personal outreach, and more Influencing public policy through our Center in the nation's capital Enhancing the Committee for the Scientific Examination of Religion CSER The Naturalism Research Project: library expansion, research fellowships, and other initiatives to spur exploration of the naturalist tradition Transnational development: reaching beyond borders through the United Nations and direct activism around the globe As always, the New Future Fund supports new and established programs, including Skeptical Inquirer and CSl's vital media and public education work.

Because our work is so important, please make your most generous gift today to support program expansion. By pledging a larger gift over a three- or four-year period, you may find a significant contribution more affordable. Our development staff stands ready to answer questions you may have about asset transfers, planned giving arrangements, and the like. All gifts are fully taxdeductible to the extent allowed by law. Latin American and u. Box , Amherst NY I development centerforinquiry. The new Naturalism Research Project will more than double our library facilities and create a collegial setting for scholarly dialogue and research.

Henry authored magic books for children as well as one focusing almost exclusively on Shirley MacLaine, tided Channeling into the New Age. A gifred performer before audiences of hundreds, Henry was equally comfortable entertaining small groups. He was a real family man. At his funeral ceremony his granddaughter affectionately referred to him as Zaida, noting that his magic took place both on and off stage.

The spotlight didn't shine on every magical moment Henry gave his family and the world, she added, but at that moment the spotlight was shining on Henry one more time. Henry was indeed involved in one last bit of magic. The broken wand symbolizes broken hearts at Henry's absence. It also represents the fact that a wand without its magician is of no use. Skepticism was a vital part of Henry's magic, and in rum, magic informed his skeptical enterprise.

Throughout his life, Henry was a major figure in city life wherever he lived, and he appeared regularly in the media, from Larry King Live to opera. A skeptical life is being interested in everything My goodness, he was full of surprises," said Zita.

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Report Knocks Baylor Claim about American Religiosity Do nonreligious people in America represent a larger group than has been portrayed? The Council for Secular Humanism a sister organization to our Committee for Skeptical Inquiry made some headlines in February with a report released to the national media calling into question many of the findings contained in a widely cited Baylor University Religion Survey of Baylor, a Baptist university, claimed in its survey that America is as religious as it has always been, adding that belief in religion is a universal characteristic displayed by all peoples around the world.

The Council's report points to a growing body of research by academic institutions and major survey organiza-. Tversky thus missed out sharing the Nobel Prize in Economics with his longtime collaborator, cognitive scientist Daniel Kahneman. The error was ours. John F. Why does the Baylor study contradict this? Independent scholar Gregory S. This approach places a disproportionate emphasis on convinced atheism-the confident rejection that a personal God exists-at the expense of more moderate forms of nontheism," said Paul. The report suggests that Baylor has failed to document large numbers of Americans who reject conventional religious beliefs, such as those who self-define as agnostic or "spiritual but not religious.

The Baylor team treats almost any deviation from strict atheism as a sign of religiosity. Doing so falselymaximizes the appa. According to Editor Alejandro Borgo, though Pensar was well-received during its five-year run, the magazine was unable to achieve the subscription. The rising cost of paper, printing, and postage-combined with the global economic reces-. The Pensar editorial staff and writers expressed their appreciation to readers for their support and are looking for ways to keep some of the material in circulation.

Spanish Skeptics Magazine Pensar Suspends Publication Pensar, the Spanish-language skeptics magazine launched in , has suspended publication as of The magazine covered many topics, including global warming, AIDS denial, miracles, and ghosts, as well as lesser-known regional topics specific to Latin America.

Actors Charles Shaughnessy and Gary Cole as Charles Darwin and Steve Allen, respectively, riveted the audience in the hour-long reading that pitted historical actors from different eras engaging in discussions about their lives and ideas. This planet-wide gesturehonoring the father of evolution will be edited into a short film this spring in Hollywood. See www. On Darwin's birthday February 12 , more than people crowded into a theater-in-the-round for a staged reading from an episode of Meeting of Minds, Steve Allen's PBS series that brought together famous historical figures.

The reading was the companion piece to the episode staged last year involving the same characters.

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Five noted televisionand movie actors played Darwin, Galileo, Emily Dickinson, and Attila the Hun discussing and debating their ideaswith moderator Steve Allen. Jayne Meadows, Allen's widow, could not be present but sent a warm note read by Cole as Steve praising last year's production and wishing us the best for this year's performance. Prometheus Books was nominated for the Lincoln Prize for the best book about Abraham Lincoln in Rounding out the week's events on. The three find a pocket watch and dive into a scorching argument about whether it was intelligently designed or not.

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Even the primarily CFI-minded audience had to hang on for dear life as the three fictional characters blazed through an array of arguments that spanned both A. More than a hundred attended, including the noted actor Michael York. It was a truly exhilarating week at CFIILos Angeles honoring the life and ideasof the scientistwhosework has withstood the test of time-and creationists. My father was very well known. Less well known was that he was responsible for the Roswell incident [when people believed they'd sported a UFO].

Interview in PhysicsToday, February ,. There are many steps between detecting an Earthlike planet and reliably assessing whether it has a biosphere. Life's origin on Earth is still a mystery, so we cannot lay firm odds on itslikelihood elsewhere. But we may learn, in the coming decades, whether biological evolution is unique to the pale blue dot in the cosmos that is our home, or whether Darwin's writ also runs in the wider universe.

Darwin's great idea has moved on. Twenty-first century evolutionary science, if Darwin could return to see it, would enthrall, excite, and amaze him. But he would recognize it as his own. We are just coloring in the details. For my money, the most important thinker the human species has ever produced was Charles Darwin. The annual meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science are a cornucopia of symposia, public lectures, exhibitions, workshops, and social events that yearly take the pulse of the planet-r-and of science itself.

Elder statesmen of science mingle with community college teachers. World media by the hundreds come. The sessions provide some new scientific results. But unlike more specialized conferences, they also bring together scientists and scholars from widely different fields to discuss broader issues and impacts at the intersection of science and society. A couple of years is a long time in science, and I wanted to catch up.

Two overriding themes permeated a large majority of the sessions over five days in February: the intensifying effects of global climate change and the perva-. And overlyingit allwas a veneerof two recurring subthemes: concern over the collapsingeconomy and the effectsit will have on world conditions and scientific progressand reliefand gratitude to have a president in office who has promised "to restore science to its rightful place. The evolution theme was of course keyed to the th birthday of Charles Darwin, which happened to occur on the opening day of the meeting and was celebrated in various ways throughout the five days-along with this year's th anniversary of the publication of Darwin's landmark book On the Origin of Species.

McCarthy told the assembled media in a breakfast briefing before the meeting got underway. He didn't postulate," McCarthy emphasized. Darwin's thoroughness and rigor in his observations is why scientists were so quickly persuaded to his conclusion that evolution by natural selection has shaped all life on earth.

McCarthy lamented that "for whatever reason, there are people who don't respect what science tells us" about life, origins, and evolution. Bacteria quickly evolving to resist current drugs is just one of the many obvious modern signs of evolution in anion.


Our modern-day, acute observations tell us something important, says McCarthy. But the body of evidence came together in the late s. We see evidence consistent with a warming world," he said. Climate is changing literally as we speak. The choices to make are not simple ones.

We need a very critical eye, and scientists need to be involved. The first real news was the announcement of the first draft sequence of the Neandertal genome. One of the scientists called it "stunning news" and said it was fitting to come on the th birthday of Darwin. Miller, professor of biology at Brown University, was cited for "his sustained efforts and excellence in communicating evolutionary science.

District Judge John E. Jones III ruling that intelligent design is not science and has no place in public-school science classes. Miller frequently lectures about the beauty and power of evolution,. Research scientist Robert Hazen, who nominated Miller for the AAAS award, said the latter is "my favorite book on evolution science," adding, "Few scientists have so effectivelyreached out to the nonscientific communiry. In numerous editions and with millions of copies in print, it is noteworthy, said the AAAS, for its articulate emphasis on evolution as an underlying principle in the life sciences.

A host of novel techniques had to be developed to make it possible. Preliminary results suggest that Neanderrals, which went extinct in Europe 30, years ago, have contributed, at most, a very small fraction of the variation found in contemporary human populations. Details will come when their study is published. What is new and surprising since the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's fourth assessment? That was the title of one session, and the news is not good. The situation is now more serious than had been considered in the last assessment We now have data showing that from to , greenhouse gas emissions increased far more rapidly than we expected, primarily because developing.

Without decisive accion, he said, global warming in the twenty-first century is likely to accelerate at a much faster pace and cause more environmental damage than predicted. The Arctic has long been seen as a place where, due to well-understood icealbedo feedbacks, melting of the reflecrive ice amplifies any warming trend.

The Arctic is indeed warming faster than anywhere else. One of the big, newer worries now is that melcing of the Arccic tundra will release billions of tons of carbon dioxide and methane a more intense greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. We have known for decades that sea levels have risen fifteen centimeters over the past century. We now have a sixteen-year record of direct measurement of sea levels by satellites. Two data points: Contrary to previous studies, much of Antarctica has warmed in recent decades, Eric Steig of the University of Washingron and colleagues reported in the January 22 Nature.

And NASA's Goddard Institute has processed the global weather observations for and found that, despite notable cold blasts in Europe and parts of North America, it was still the ninth warmest on record. Two scientists warned that use of biofuels can seriously exacerbate the problem. Studies show that forests are the major source of new croplands 80 percent , yet if trees in tropical forests are cut down and burned to make room for growing biofuel crops, all the carbon from the trees will be released into the atmosphere.

It may takes up to minutes before you received it. Please note you've to add our NEW email km bookmail. Read more. Post a Review. You can write a book review and share your experiences. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. Dutton Denis Dutton, The Art Instinct. Oxford University Press. Gerald M. Penguin Press Science. Ehrenzweig Anton Ehrenzweig. Black Dog Publishing. Frazer Oxford World's Classics.

Fraud Sigmund Fraud, Totem and Taboo. Empire Books Sigmund Fraud, The Unconscious. Penguin Modern Classics Gablik Suzi Gablick. Has Modernism Failed. Suzi Gablik. Gallager Ann Gallagher, Damian Hirst. Tate Publishing. Gardner Basic Books. Gawain Shakti Gawain, Creative Visualisation.

New World Library. Goldman Alan H. Goldman, Aesthetic Value. Focus Series Westview Press. Gombrich Gombrich, The Essential Gombrich. Phaidon Press, Commentry by Richard Woodfield. Gould Stephen Jay Gould, Will man become obsolete? The New York Review of Books, 29 6. Harvard University Press. Griffin Donald R. University of Chicago Press. Hauser Marc Hauser. Penguin Press. Hegarty Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd. Morton A. The Psychology of Touch. Psychology Press. Describing Inner Experience? Kandinsky Wassily Kandinsky, Concerning the Spiritual in Art.

The main reference for the idea that an artist has some kind of calling to a spiritual plane reached through harmony of colour, etc. Other artists who promoted this notion included Kapka, Malavich and Mondrian. It is still upheld in modern art objects like Damien Hirst's work where the 'spiritual' content of our minds is seen to have been transformed into a belief that science has become a religion to the populous who believe it can shield them from the rawness of nature and the inevitability of death.

Museum of Modern Art. Klee Lund Humphries. Ladd-Franklin Christine Ladd-Franklin. Colour and Colour Theories. Johnston Press. Lenain Thierry Lenain, Monkey Painting. Reaktion Books. LeShan Eirini Press. Lewis Lorrison Gary Lorrison, Visualisation. Creative Space Independent Publishing Platform. Malone Meredith Malone. Chance Aesthetics. Manco Tristan Manco. Matthews Saga Publications. Mithen Morris Desmond Morris. Red Lemon Press. Naifeh, Smith Barrie and Jenkins. Nicholson Octavia Nicholson. Quotation from a Tate Description of Damien Hirst's work as aproved by www.

Oxlade Roy Oxlade, A Primitive Reformation. Quoted from Art Without Art. Edited by Marcus Reichert, Ziggurat Books. Oxlade, Ziggurat Books. Pardey Andres Pardey. Jean Tinguely: Retrospectiva. Pariser Pavey Universal Publishers. Peiry Petrucelli Karnac Books. Pinker Steven Pinker, The language Instinct. William Morrow and Company. Plotkin Allan Lane. Read Herbert Read, The Meaning of Art.

Rhodes Colin Rhodes Primitivism and Modern Art. Riley Charles A. University Press of New England. Rokeach Milton Rokeach. The Open and Closed Mind. New York, Basic Books. Rose Barbara Rose, The good, the bad and the ugly: Neo-expressionism challenges abstract art. Vogue Magazine, March Rutsky University of Minnesota Press. Sadler Create Space Independent Publishing. Michel Sanouillet and Elmer Peterson. Da Capo Press. Savage-Rumbaugh, Shanker, Taylor Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Stuart G.

Shanker, Talbot J. Taylor, Apes, Language and the Human Mind. Schapiro Meyer Schapiro, Klee's Twittering Machine. Art Bulletin, March Sharp Deborah T. The Psychology of Colour. Shepard Coming Home to the Pleistocene. Island Press. Chuck Smith and Sano Kuwayama. This quote from Agnes Martin transcribed from a filmed interview.

Longer version at vimeo. Richard M. Sorrentino and Christopher J. Stepan Stolper Exhibition Catalogue, Paul Stolper, London Uexkull Jakob von Uexkull. Clair H. Verstegen Williams Wilson Edward O Wilson. On Human Nature. Timothy D. Worringer Wilhelm Worringer. Abstraction and Empathy. Yockey Hubert P. Cambridge University Press. Figure 5. Animistic Sensibility. Paint soaked paper hung over string in an abandoned factory. Another attempt to provoke the primitive sensation that everything is alive.

We no longer think this way because we have learned to analyse and differentiate inert and living material in our intelligent interpretation of the world, but to the animal sense of instinct this interpretation of material does not exist. Recall of this animistic view still persists in primitive peoples who see all things as possessed by a benevolent or malevolent presence. In art you find two different types of people who create and look in opposing ways at what confronts them. There will be those who are disturbed by raw experience and find it an empty unsettling view.

These people will be attracted to work that has been carefully created by the artist controlling their materials to present us with meaningful recognisible pictures, superbly carved sculpture, wonderfully composed music or well choreographed dance, and, generally speaking, people who look for this content in art will dislike anything that fails to display these qualities. These type of people look to remove any hint of direct raw experience being provoked in their thoughts, and they rid their mind of any recall of an underlying animal way of sensing.

They impose their intellectual understanding over what they see rather than accept that this destroys a natural view. Other people are intrigued by uncertainty and these people realise that art made through less conventional approaches gives recall, rather than suppress, their natural powers of observation. Until modern times all artist controlled their materials to make art objects that stopped us looking to raw experience, and they composed recognisable pictures, sculpture, music and dance rather than championed bland paint, clay, sound or movement.

The traditional idea of art therefore works to direct us to think the art experience can be created by taking material and controlling it to attain a result that reflects a quality of an assertive mind. A painter, for example, guides paint to create an image that shows how we human beings command the power of creative visualisation. This idea is now used to encourage attitudes to achievement in art as well as the sports, health and business, and teaches a belief in reaching ideals. This assertive language creates a successful way of thinking, but it blocks out any recall of your biological base experience of the world.

This implies that negative responses — uncertainty and not knowing - brings back to mind the older inherent way of sensing through instinct.

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You are encouraged to uphold the belief that art is a quality of intellectual refined learning given form through the control of materials to create an intellectually stimulating result, Read , Gombrich but I state this is misleading. Creative visualisation looks to attain a successful result, and whilst this is very useful in gaining a positive outlook in life, it requires that we look for high ideas in art rather than animal instinct.

The meaning of art has to be seen as holding two opposing points of view. The character of the balance achieved between stimuli received and response made will determine the development and quality of the life of the organism. The 'unlearned' raw view will result in art that defies all reason as to what is and is not acceptable as art, and we can, through art, either visualise, affirm and assert our beliefs, or look to art to remove these beliefs to bring uncertainty through negative results. This provokes the sense of disruption and not knowing in our minds, and opens our powers of observation to recall of our older way of sensing by instinct.

Artist have, until modern times, always worked to avoid provoking disruption in art by removing disorder to attain successful results, but the opposite view is that this way of working destroys an original experience. Art can bring us to creative visualisation, but this visualisation has to be controlled by conscious thoughts and this will impose order to what Anton Ehrenzweig called the deceptive chaos of art's substructure. Ehrenzweig This order destroys the remnants of an older way of sensing, which can only be recalled to mind through an instinctive response.

Acting to look in an 'unlearned' way would, of course, produce a very inartistic result, but the only way to glimpse the old state of mind is to stop yourself imposing your intelligent commands over what you do. Cabanne enquires how Duchamp differentiates a ready-made from any object chosen at random.

In general, I had to beware, at the end of fifteen days, you begin to like it or hate it. You have to approach something with indifference, as if you had no aesthetic emotion. The choice of the readymade is always based on visual indifference and, at the same time, on the total absence of good or bad taste. Page, Visual indifference would be akin to recalling an older inherent way of sensing an object by instinct, and requires you to remove all the intelligent 'learned' ideas you use to judge the usefulness or purpose of an object.

Duchamp's Fountain Camfield Duchamp gives himself fifteen days to see if this sensation of not knowing and uncertainty is lost by his choice of object. The irony was that — after the abuse had died down - art critics and theorists moved the goal posts to include Duchamp's anti-art gesture into their classification of the 'high' ideals of art.

This revealed to us that our minds unconsciously work all the time to stop the raw experience of an object returning into our view of the world. The bland raw reality of Duchamp's ready-made gesture was glossed over by claims that what he was doing was an avant-garde expression of a perpetually wandering mind that refused of bow down to tradition and was committed to an anti-nationalist pacifism through artistic practice. Demos Psychologically we all look to remove any initial disruption to our ordered way of comprehending what we see, and there is no better way to do this in art than to claim that anything that disrupts established principles must be full of grand values.

No one seemed to have the balls to just say that what Duchamp had done was to place a mindless raw experience in front of us. We don't like any recall of this raw experience and, just as we do in day-to-day life, we crave for some kind of meaning — any meaning rather than no meaning — in the objects that surround us. We seek to find explanation and intellectual content, rather than empty mindless confrontation, and we do this because we begin to get recall of our old animal way of sensing when these values are removed from what we see. Here is a discussion about an early Cristo work — a chair wrapped in sheets of plastic and tied up with rope — by Rudolf Arnheim that demonstrates how we think to suppress uncertainty.

When the aesthetic attitude is called up, it automatically turns the practical function of the object into an expressive one: the chair become human, the ropes are fettles, and the crisscross becomes the visual music of violence. The demonstration is no creative achievement, but it is useful and rather upsetting.

Arnheim 'fantasises' about a chair wrapped in sheet plastic and tied with rope, and this allows him to arrive at an intellectual explanation of what confronts him, rather than sense the work as an attempt to remove all the 'learned' values we look to projected over an object that is now shrouded in mystery. Arnheim, looks to 'explain' what Cristo places before him, and therefore rids his mind of any recall of the raw animal sensation of what he is looking at. Arnhiem is unconsciously responding to suppress any 'feeling' that begins to provoke a return of his old redundant instinctive animal mind.

Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books) Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books)
Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books) Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books)
Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books) Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books)
Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books) Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books)
Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books) Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books)
Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books) Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books)
Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books) Describing Inner Experience?: Proponent Meets Skeptic (Bradford Books)

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