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Images were analyzed using the Zeiss LSM software. SL cell size quantification was achieved by measuring the size in square microns of cells adjacent to the LL. For each genotype, a total of six different images were used, and SL cells were measured from both sides of the central replum using ImageJ.


For RGA-GFP expression, the same settings were used to generate maximum intensity projections from image stacks for each treatment. An assay enabling measurement of the strength required to initiate dehiscence in oilseed rape pods has been described previously Morgan et al. This RIT was modified to enable quantification of shatter resistance in Arabidopsis. Silique samples at stage 18 or older Smyth et al.

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Three replicate samples of 20 siliques were then subjected to the ARIT. The petri dish was agitated for 5-sec intervals from 0 to 60 sec and sec intervals from 60 to sec, until all fruit had dehisced or sec of shaking had elapsed. Fruits were considered to have dehisced only when both valves had detached. The yeast two-hybrid experiment was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Further details are given in the Supplemental Material. Work in the R.

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View all Figure 1. Previous Section Next Section. Gibberellin is required for valve margin development Fruit development involves extensive GA-activated cell elongation, which is partially dependent on GA3ox1 Koornneef and Van der Veen ; Chiang et al. Figure 2. Valve margin defects caused by low gibberellin resemble the alc phenotype Next, we used transmission electron microscopy TEM to reveal in cellular detail how gibberellin depletion affected valve margin development.

Figure 3. Figure 4.

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Expression analysis GUS assays were performed according to the protocol described by Rodrigues-Pousada et al. TEM Stage 17b fruits were fixed in 2. Assessment of dehiscence using an Arabidopsis RIT ARIT An assay enabling measurement of the strength required to initiate dehiscence in oilseed rape pods has been described previously Morgan et al.

Previous Section. Dpp and Gbb exhibit different effective ranges in the establishment of the BMP activity gradient critical for Drosophila wing patterning.

Dev Biol : — CrossRef Medline Google Scholar. Determining the oilseed rape pod strength needed to reduce seed loss due to pod shatter. Biosys Eng 81 : — CrossRef Google Scholar.

Gibberellins - Definition, Structure, Function, Uses

Isolation of the Arabidopsis GA4 locus. Plant Cell 7 : — A molecular framework for light and gibberellin control of cell elongation. Nature : — Coordinated regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana development by light and gibberellins. Science : — Gibberellin metabolism: New insights revealed by the genes. Trends Plant Sci 5 : — The basic helix—loop—helix transcription factor family in plants: A genome-wide study of protein structure and functional diversity. Mol Biol Evol 20 : — Potential sites of bioactive gibberellin production during reproductive growth in Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 20 : — Plant J 20 : 15 — Induction and analysis of gibberellin sensitive mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana L.

Theor Appl Genet 58 : — Genes Dev 16 : — Cell : — Distinct and overlapping roles of two gibberellin 3-oxidases in Arabidopsis development. Plant J 45 : — NAC transcription factors NST1 and NST3 regulate pod shattering in a partially redundant manner by promoting secondary wall formation after the establishment of tissue identity. Plant J 56 : — Genetic variation for pod shatter resistance among lines of oilseed rape developed from synthetic B-Napus.

Field Crops Res 58 : — Latest reports have revealed unique conflicting roles of GA and other phytohormones in amalgamating growth and development in plants through environmental signaling. Numerous physiological researches have detailed substantial crosstalk between GA and other hormones like abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, and jasmonic acid. In this review, a number of explanations and clarifications for this discrepancy are explored based on the crosstalk among GA and other phytohormones.

Gibberellins - a multifaceted hormone in plant growth regulatory network.

Nasim Ali and Narayan Chandra Sahu. Abstract: Plants tend to acclimatize to unfavourable environs by integrating growth and development to environmentally activated signals. Volume 16 , Issue 5 , Journal Home. The length of the internodes becomes so great that the plant becomes indistinguishable from climbing or "pole" beans. GA seems to overcome the genetic limitations in many dwarf varieties. Synthesis of gibberellins also helps grapevines climb up toward the light by causing meristems that would have developed into flowers to develop into tendrils instead.

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Gibberellins exert their effects by altering gene transcription. This mechanism is another of the many cases in biology where a pathway is turned on by inhibiting the inhibitor of that pathway a double-negative is a positive. Although most of the specific proteins involved are quite different, both gibberellins and auxin affect gene expression by a similar mechanism of relief of repression.

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