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Look what happens to them when they gain power. Look at Trump. Or Hollande. Or Bill Clinton. Or even JFK. And then of course, she said, smiling gloomily, there was the Italian bunga-bunga contribution to this rule, with Berlusconi outshining everyone with his wild parties and harem of showgirls. Like, Angela Merkel boasting in a secret video clip that she regularly grabs the private parts of her male assistants?

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You must suffer. You must sweat. You must starve. Which means that middle-aged women can date young men. Ah… It was slowly dawning on me that compiling this manual was not going to be easy. Something told me that if I made the wrong plot move, half of my girlfriends were not going to talk to me any longer. Thus, I had no other option but to add a new rule into my embryonic manual.

After Madonna and Demi Moore, there was no turning back. The conversation turned pragmatic and even rather cynical. Even if you look like a walking, Botox-ed zombie. With a serious cellulite problem. Did this mean that the only rule that really mattered in my manual was the last one? But that question simply led to another one. Namely, did Leona Helmsley date young men? A friend of mine, an American woman, looked at me. She smiled apologetically. All he wants is a little bit of kibbles and affection. I drive a car that is a far cry from your average shiny Porsche.

But still, there is a thirty-something male who follows my each and every step. Welcome to OWS. Home Insurance Quotes. Insurance Quotes. Business Loans at, business loans. Business Insurance. Compare Quotes for Big Savings. Safety Indemnity Company v. To Buy Life Insurance Online? Videotrailer zum Electrofixx Jubilaum. I Need Commercial Auto Coverage? Your GPA, your credit. Loans: Apply for Car, personal loan. Meanwhile all my school memories disappeared when I started to read the reviews and comments on the new opera production.

The more I read about the new Eugene Onegin in its operatic form, the more I became interested in looking again at its textual source, the novel, fully aware that now it would be different, because I was looking at it from an adult perspective and by my own free choice. I was absolutely thrilled to read it again. However, it took some time for me to make a decision to write my thesis on Eugene Onegin, in which, in addition to my hobbies, my professional interests would be addressed and maintained.

Soon an opportunity occurred which backed up my growing interest in Eugene Onegin. This time I was not just exploring the new subject: I had something to offer. In my first article in English was published on the subject of literature and music Ponomareva I was proud of it and decided to send a copy to Douglas Hofstadter as it was the period in my life in which his Godel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid occupied such a prominent place, so I provided a reference to the GEB in my article on Russian Symbolism.

His reply was kind and informative. In his electronic message of 18 June he directed my attention to his other books, on Literature and Translation, such as Le Ton beau de Marot: In Praise of the Music of Language , and his verse translation of Eugene Onegin into English I was captivated by this new reading.

A number of paragraphs below will explain this further. However, before that it is necessary to refer to Hofstadter again. Quoting his words is the quickest way for me to explain why I have started my Introduction with mentioning Eugene Onegin as an opera, but not as a novel: as nowhere in sight, nor was the idea of poetry. And in recent years I have found, over and over again, that my experience is pretty typical, outside of Russia. To the average culturally-inclined adult, in a a vaguish image of some nineteenth-century literary figure but seldom any specific work x-xi.

My experience of Eugene Onegin is different form Hofst trying to use the same paradigm, moving from something widely known to the areas of the unknown. That is why I have started with opera. Meanwhile it is obvious that without the brilliant Pushkin text Tchaikovsky would not have managed to compose his famous opera : verse Eugene Onegin with the help of his friend, Konstantin Shilovskii. The novel was written between and by Alexander Pushkin , one of the greatest Russian poets.

It was first published serially in several journal issues in the early s. It is a romantic love story in which happiness, betrayal, death, sadness and boredom are essential components. The main heroine of the novel is called by her first his surname, Onegin. Pushkin contributes to the development of the plot as author, narrator and, in some places, also as a character.

His pro-active position creates a novel in verse which can be read as a multi-layered text in which light humour, bitter sarcasm, deep observation and high intelligence are mixed. Eugene Onegin is also a peculiar piece of writing: it is a novel in verse. Its D. Among the particular characteristics of this stanza are the following: it has 14 lines it is written in iambic tetrameters it is rhymed its rhythmic scheme has a solid structure, in which the particular order of alternating double feminine or two-syllable and singular masculine or one- syllable rhymes is maintained.

The scheme of the Onegin stanza is usually represented by letters, with capitals indicating the double rhymes: A b A b C C d d E f f E g g. Below is an example from Chapter 5, Stanza 2 with syllables are highlighted in bold: Pushkin Mitchell 1 And from an adjacent quarter A 2 , A company commander came, b 3 , The idol of each ripened daughter A 4 ; And district mothers, all aflame.

C saying? The regimental band is playing, C 7. The colonel has arranged it all, d 8! What fun! There is to be a ball!

All go to table, arm in arm, f 12 ; The grown-up girls near Tanya E waiting, 13 , The men en face; a buzz goes round; g All cross themselves as seats are g found. From my point of view, in Russian literature for more information see Ponomareva Since the date of its appearance, it was widely read and studied in Russia. For instance, Vissarion Belinskii described Eugene Onegin as why several generations of Russian-speaking people can remember a number of long passages from Eugene Onegin, if not the entire text, by heart.

It also shows "how profoundly Alexander Pushkin's novel in verse pervades the minds of his compatriots nearly years after its completion" Hofstadter x. The novel is also popular in its various translations; straight after the first publication of the original in Russia, the novel started its journey into world culture. Wednesday, February 3, The publication gave information on the first parts of the novel published in Russian periodicals.

One phrase in the concluding paragraph of the review may explain the long love-affair between English-speaking readers and the novel. Thus, in addition to the published six parts of the novel, the review promises a new part, Moscow, and describes it as a lively and attractive sketch of the external face of that Russian life, initially noticed by the reviewers of The Foreign Literary Gazette, might be responsible for the longevity of Eugene Onegin in English. English-speaking readers started to read their Eugene Onegin relatively late in comparison with other European audiences, in ; this was nearly half a century later after its partial translation into German in On the other hand, at present, the corpus of English translations of Eugene Onegin is numerous and the most accomplished.

Their Onegin bibliography has been used in my research after its entries have been checked using another bibliography which was created by Ljuba Tarvi, a Russian scholar based in Finland who published her thesis on Eugene Onegin in The following is a list of translations of Eugene Onegin into English, believed to be complete at the time of writing: Table 1.

It also differs from the York Bibliographical Society records in which the translations emerge in their chronological order and the revised versions have separate entries. So I have excluded partial translations from their list of forty-four items and, in addition, grouped revised versions and editions under a single record. This impressive list of twenty-six English translations of Eugene Onegin shows the significance of the Pushkin novel in verse to English-speaking audiences. It also symbolizes the ambitions of the translators into English of this key cultural text in Russian literature.

Two American scholars of Russian literature offer their explanations of this phenomenon. David Bethea compares translating Eugene Onegin with running a mile in three minutes Both explanations are powerful metaphors. Moreover they underline the possibility of targeting the original as closely as possible without arguing that it is realistic of three minutes as a theoretically impossible time for running a mile is supported by records.

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It seems that it is physically impossible to run a mile in three minutes, as since the current mile world record for men held by Hicham El Guerrouj remains at the level of However, Lauren extent, it foresees the appearance of new translations of Eugene Onegin in the future and argues that the interest in translating the novel will never cease to exist. Current rapid - the realm of virtual reality or bric-a-brac standards confirm the importance of preserving and maintaining several crucial elements of traditional paper editions, such as book covers, illustrations, introductions, commentaries, etc.

That is why my sample is multimodal in that it includes both textual and paratextual data2. However, if my research touches on a number of visual dimensions for representing the novel in English, it will not extend to cover its sound quality. Thus, issues relating to the Eugene Onegin are not part of my work.

It seems to me that the Onegin stanza has been successfully preserved in many translations of the novel into English. They are highly valued by many readers. It would have been a much too large sample to deal with in one PhD. Below is my explanation of how I arrived at my choice. Firstly, I decided to look at several translations which have been produced after This particular time constraint is due to the fact that is the year of publication of the Some scholars might argue that the description of a research sample should be part of the methodology chapter.

I understand and value their concerns, but have decided to begin describing my sample in the introductory chapter and to come back to it in the methodology chapter as the subject is complex. Thus a number of explanatory, rather than technical, statements in the description of my sample form part of the introduction. When the issue is addressed again in the methodology chapter I am going to cover other features of my sample, in particular its peculiarities from an operational point of view.


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This book contains a number of ideas relating to translation methods which will be discussed in the main body of my thesis. Secondly, my PhD started in February I wrote the proposal which initiated this research in ; nobody then could have predicted other additions to scholarly work on Eugene Onegin scholarship in English. So the two translations by Hobson and Briggs , the most contemporary ones, were not been used to contribute their data to my sample but to provide evidence on the ongoing process of scholarly studies.

It is hoped that these two works will be discussed in another study. The present work will only touch on them in relevant places. Thirdly, my intention has been to examine verse translations only. This restriction does not contradict my previous explanation for excluding the discussion of prosodic problems in my research: it simply ignores those translations which are not designed to maintain stanzas into prose passages separated from one another, thus taking another step away from the EO.

On the other hand, I Eugene Onegin, but the stanza structure is left unchanged. Then the translations which have not been published in the traditional manner have been removed from my list. For instan to furnish relevant data for my thesis as they do not have any book covers, graphics or illustrations; the former is a manuscript, and the latter is an online publication. Finally, I decided to exclu comparative translation assessment conducted by Tarvi In her thorough analysis based on quantifying the quality of nineteen translations of the novel into English, she Eugene Onegin at the bottom of her many evaluation tables.

Thus, I ended up with the five translations which will provide the data for my research. To a large extent this selection highlights a number of general attitudes in the contemporary scholarly studies of Eugene Onegin, especially those relating to the personality and professionalism of the translator. It covers individual and team work. It contains the translations by prominent literary figures and intellectuals and also by those outside literary and academic circles.

All these will be discussed in more detail in the main chapter of my thesis. One chapter has been picked out from the eight chapters in some editions the number of chapters is Five. My explanation of the importance of this chapter and a brief description of it are given below. Chapter Five occupies a special place in the novel.

It is conceptually important as and her birthday celebrations are unique in terms of providing cultural information and max. There are forty-five stanzas in Chapter Five three of them are just numbered but contain no text as it has been removed by Pushkin. It starts with the scene that describes the glorious winter morning at the beginning of January in the Russian countryside where Tatyana and her family live stanzas Then the reader is invited to witness unusual celebrations, largely pagan in origin, meticulously performed by the young ladies of ations, going to a strange place and performing special rituals in order to know their fortunes on the night of 18 January Julian calendar, the one which was used in Russia at that time or 5 January Gregorian calendar, the one which was followed by most other European countries in the 19th century stanzas All this happens just before the Russian Christmas, on the night between 6 and 7 January Gregorian calendar ; however they form part of the festive season which combines pagan and Christian features.

The next ten stanzas, , -telling. She has been woken by her sister, Olga, and immediately tries to interpret the episodes of her nightmare stanzas Thus stanzas are dedicated to the party which takes place at her home and which is attended by a crowd of guests, her neighbours. These pages can be read through the prism of culture-specific rituals and customs; they provide extensive information on eating and drinking habits, games, dances, anecdotes and the This brief description of Chapter Five shows that my chosen sample is full of culture- specific objects and concepts which will be challenging to translate.

For example, just mentioning the issue of the two calendars, Julian and Gregorian, raises questions on the translatability of various events that cannot be plotted on the same timeline. However, this problem is minor in comparison with the complications connected with religious and civil organisations and sacred and secular rituals, customs and habits.

Later, the chapter on methodology will explain how the data have been extracted from Chapter Five and how they will be analysed. These data usually appear in two formats, words and images. Text-based information includes introductory chapters written by the translator or by a leading academic in the subject- specific ar the novel. Visual information is channelled through photos, illustrations, particular graphical designs such as the layout of the book, the font and style of letters and numbers.

Moreover, book covers and front pages are also rich sources of paratextual data. These data, collected from all five translations, will be described and analysed in the appropriate chapter in the main body of the thesis. At this point, information on the size of introductory chapters in each translation will be provided to illustrate the scope of the ntroductory material, which is the essential component of paratextual data; it only consists of three pages, just much larger, containing fourteen pages.

However, its size is nearly half of the other in length. It also has its own title, The Brightest Heaven of Creation! All publications have book covers which are in colour and visually different. The density of factual information presented in them varies from book to book. For instance, three out of the five front covers have illustrations either by professional artists or by the translator himself. All these show that the evaluation of multimodalities, encoding and decoding cultural messages, embedded in various verbal and visual images and styles in these translations, can make valuable contributions to the research.

It could be seen as a modest contribution to the discussio visibility initiated by Venuti in However, it will not be contained to the ideological framework of the first edition of his work published in It will follow the recent developments in the subject, in particular the current move to discuss the ethical issues of translating which were emphasised in the second revised published in This advance, unlike such major contemporary scholars of Translation as Hermans , Munday , Robinson , and Pym Meanwhile, this study will not restrict itself to examining It will be argued that behind the translat expression, it is the transla the big issues of anslation such as society, gender, customs, etc.

Instead I shall restrict myself to looking at the details of translation as a craft and focus on the methodological issues in translating, in particular on its methods and procedures. So, while conducting an empirical study based on the sample of five translations of Eugene Onegin into English, I intend to question the present bi-polar model of Translation. To some extent, this work can also be understood in terms of investigating the specific aspects of translation as a process, though it is not primary research, but a secondary one, stead of conducting experiments and arranging interviews with translators I intend to deal with what translators say about their own work.

In this way the commentaries will be checked against their textual data that provides evidence on the procedures implemented in his or her work. Defining a more general framework for my dissertation is problematic as the discipline is growing rapidly, and the evaluation of these developments, which might result in novel theorising, is not advancing at the same speed as the changes. Thus Holmes s map of Translation Studies presented by Toury does not reflect the current situation in the subject and should be revised and updated.

Yet, in the absence of another map, my research can be placed under the general umbrella of descriptive translation studies. This is followed by another overview, with a focus on the existing literature on the theory of translation, in which the which forms the literature review, will cover the Western contemporary school of Translation with a particular emphasis on post publications. It will also analyse the developments in Russian research by looking precisely at post advances in the Soviet school as some of its many achievements in theory have not been acknowledged and discussed in depth in English before.

Chapter 4 highlights the methodology used in my work. It also describes how the data have been collected. After these preparatory chapters, the stage will be set for the main body of my thesis, which is the empirical study of the textual and paratextual Eugene Onegin in the five chosen translations into English. The data analysis will be followed by a conclusion which presents the findings of my work and defines its contribution to the current research in Translation Studies.

I have taken part in seminars, presented papers at conferences, read lectures as a guest speaker, and worked as a co-convenor of Translation in History Lecture Series at UCL. I would like to conclude this Introduction by providing the details of my publications related to the subject of the PhD. Rome: Aracne editrice, , pp. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Rossiya St Petersburg: Serebryanyi vek, , pp. ISBN Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag GmbH, ISBN: ; e-book. Almaty: Suleyman Demirel University, , pp. ISBN: Translation as Intercultural Communicat Worlds.

My focus will be on publications in academia and media which deal with more than one of the English translations of Eugene Onegin rather than focusing on one particular work. The review will follow chronological order when this is possible in order to provide a history of Eugene Onegin translated into English in both scholarly traditions, English and Russian. Critical literature on the five translations chosen for my research, however, will be discussed in the appropriate chapters of the thesis, not in this chapter.

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However, it is impossible to suggest that the author of the short article of about Eugene Onegin was able to imagine how significant its future popularity in translation would be. In particular, that it would occupy such a prominent place in world literature in translation in English for about one hundred and forty years, and that it would catch the imagination of numerous translators into English and appear at least in thirty-six different versions by the end of see the section below. In they initiated the Onegin project, a bibliography of Pu in verse in English.

It is possible to suggest that the choice of the society to celebrate this particular book reflects the personal interests of its members. From my personal correspondence with Peter Lee, who maintains and updates the current bibliography on the novel, it became apparent that he is a retired lecturer in Mathematics, with a passion for Eugene Onegin. His bibliography is a valuable resource for education and research.

Its popularity can be measured by the number of visitors who have come to the site so far: the web counter of the York Bibliographical Society web page on Onegin counted me as its 22,th visitor when I accessed it on 30 September Lee Below is my list of existing translations of Eugene Onegin into English.

It is based on any particular translator or team of translators appear only once and are counted as one item on my list details of these publications are in my bibliography. So far there are thirty-six Onegins in English3: 1. Spalding 2. Phillipps-Wolley 3. Turner no date 4. Elton 6. Simmons 8. Kayden Harding Clough Sharer Cahill Hofstadter Ledger Litoshick Beck Stone Hoyt Mitchell Kline Lowenfeld Thomas Briggs Portnoi retranslations which implies several astronomical concepts cited in Alvstad and Assis Rosa after Frank and Schultze Thus, applying their symbolism to -six segments, or retranslations.

This great number of translations of Eugene Onegin provides unique opportunities either to support or to -called hypothesis of re- translations same source text, same target text tend to be closer to the original than l be discussed further in other subchapters of my literature review. At this point it is appropriate to mention that the case of Eugene Onegin the 21st century as regards translation: she calls it the Age of Retranslation cited in Alvstad and Assis Rosa 13 after Collombat 8.

According to her, the current increase in retranslations might be explicable in terms of the change of translation parameters. Collombat views contemporary developments in translation as challenging the norms of previous periods. Moreover, it is also clear that the thirty-six versions of the novel in English are a unique source of information which might be used to analyse how the translation of this particular source has developed over nearly one hundred and forty years.

Simmons view novel as a relentlessly challenging exercise.

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He highlights the examples of good practice in each work, and measures the quality of translation in terms of how closely it resembles the original. For example, Simmons describe as such, but it is mentioned that he was not a poet. Deutsch, an American poet, produced her translation in partnership with her husband, Avrahm Yarmolinsky, a native speaker of Russian, and the Head of the Slavonic Division of the New York Public Library, a translator himself, and the author of the first bibliography of Eugene Onegin The Simmons review of the first four complete verse translations is important as it not only initiates a discussion on the topic of Eugene Onegin in English but also produces a number of arguments that would be developed in future reviews of other translations.

Here, in an embryonic form, the following issues are highlighted: the occupation of a translator, his or her knowledge of Russian culture and language and abilities to maintain a balance between the preservation of form and of the meaning of the original. In spite of the fact that the issue of accuracy in translation is paramount to him, Simmons manages to point to the significance of what has been added to the receiving culture by one or other translation.

This, in particular, makes his work essential to our discussions on added values in translation. For instance, he argues in the concluding section of his the series of great translations which have become part of the noble heritage of English 2. Nabokov sees translating Eugene Onegin along with commentaries and reviews of previous translations as one big competitive project. He was working on his translation of the novel at the same time as his contemporary rival, Walter Bollingen Prize for poetry translation in He states: To my ideal of literalism I sacrificed everything elegance, euphony, clarity, good taste, modern usage and even grammar that the dainty mimic in the Commentary.

These notes are partly the echoes of my high-school studies in Russia half a century ago and partly the outcome of many pleasant afternoons spent in the splendid libraries of Cornell, Harvard, and the City of New York , I: x. The adjectives that Nabokov uses to describe the previous publications of Eugene Onegin into English those of Spalding, Deutsch, Radin and Patrick, Elton, and Arndt strike the reader as bitterly sarcastic in his commentaries as they appear in the English version of his work , II: The Russian version is even worse Johnston, whose translation was published in , was Eugene Onegin is also relevant to the contemporary discussion on translation methods.

For example, Coates , one of the contemporary commentators Eugene Onegin, ideas : her article on Nabokov contributes to the current discussion on Eugene Onegin as foreignization. Coates believes that in using a literalist approach to Pushkin, Nabokov attempts to educate his readers. Its counterpart may be found among the Biblical names in England. We should imagine an English young lady of slipping out of the manor to ask a passing labourer his name and discovering that her husband will be called not Alan but Noah Nabokov , II: According to Chukovsky 87, first published in , since to The New York Times of 28 June there has been continuing discussion in the press Onegin.

Thus, only in , nearly thirty years after the controversial Nabokov four-volume edition, does another scholarly publication appear in English. Like consists of the three following translations: Arndt , Nabokov and Johnston Other translations of the novel into English are also mentioned, but discussion of them is peripheral.

To some extent, these characteristics will be reintroduced by Venuti However, they will be transformed in order to correspond to his perception of translation as ideology, not science, which was how it appealed to Nabokov. In the concluding paragraph Eugene Onegin, there it stands in all its daunting complexity, waiting like all great works to be translated again, and perhaps even In fact, a new translation of exceptional quality appeared in Leighton also continued his work on Onegin.

His article, A New Onegin, tells the story of translating Thirteen years earlier, in , Bethea had suggested an even more vivid description of the ongoing process of translating the Pushkin novel in verse into English: Hence capturing Eugene Onegin in English has come to represent is not whether the barrier that is, a precise English substitute, in all can be reached, but how close one can come, given the obstacles So, again the issue of correspondence - between the source text and the target text - is perceived to be crucial. The cultural elements of the text are not seriously considered.

This shows that the novel and its translations attract new audiences and provide opportunities for them to be involved in sharing their appreciation of Eugene Onegin using the facilities of Web 2. Moreover, it manages to echo these various the work firmly within the English Romantic tradition, as is only right song of equal beauty in English Murr online. My discussion of Hofstadter , Tarvi and Mitchell will be reserved thesis as they are two translators whose work forms the core texts of my resea doctoral thesis will be the focus of section 2.

At this stage it is Onegin in English ends which each successive translator has been determined to improve on the work of his or her predecessor. Hofstadter and Mitchell review a number of translations in their introductory chapters or other corresponding publications, but their priority is proving their own points of view, not emphasising any developments in the legacy of translating Onegin into English.

Coming back to its source text in Russian, it is necessary to point out that appeared in a number of versions ranging from a small brochure Chukovsky and Gumilyov to a book publication in the collection of C volumes What is more interesting for my research is the new material which Chukovsky added to his edition of Vysokoe Iskusstvo , namely his review of Onegin na chuzhbine Onegin in a Foreign Land my translation of the title is the title nd ed. Although aiming to examine all these translations of the novel, criticises the Nabokov translation with the same enthusiasm and energy that Nabokov previously employed in his evaluation of other translations of Onegin.

At some point positive, but unfortunately his article was left unfinished at the time of his death. It ends work: T borrowed by Pushkin from foreign sources, mainly French ones. For the commentator, locating these sources is one of the main tasks 17 in my translation. Giving nicknames is probably what Chukovsky and Nabokov share in their attitude to other attitude might be ideological and explained in terms of the Cold War. To him, Nabokov is an American work, as Nabokov is not only an American citizen, but also a person of Russian origin living abroad and thus almost a defector.

Thus, he tries to emphasise the importance of the quality and type of language used in translation. He discusses r , the colour used in his description of language which is time- and class-specific. Chukovsky sarcastically replacement of her ossible for Lensky to feel offended by Onegin if Onegin described Olga Chukovsky 7 in my translation. To Chukovsky, it is obvious that what must be an encoding mistake. Because of this mistake Nabokov uses the archaic meaning of h into a Slavophile one. Eugene Onegin is important to my study as it provides evidence that, in politically divided Russian Studies, the scholarly perception of the translation of the Pushkin novel was nearly identical in both West and East.

The discussion of Eugene Onegin is just one of the examples of the existing similarities. One such dissertation has been recently completed the Context of Translation Equivalence in Russian: the Analysis of Translations on the sh translations of Eugene Onegin Eugene Onegin anslation. She uses his work in order to identify and analyse the presence of linguistic and non-linguistic lacunae. In so doing Kopteva discusses challenges to maintaining equivalence in translating the Pushkin text into English. It is a PhD thesis written at the University of Helsinki in Her aim is ambitious: the development of a method for quantifying the quality of translations.

The statistical study of the novel in translation relies upon a huge and complicated sample. Tarvi operates with a sample of impressive size: the database is the page Text Appendix comprising stanzas in which 38, tokens and 6, lines are analysed Her database is huge indeed. But what is there exactly, under the big numbers of stanzas, tokens and lines? Tarvi looks at some extracts from nineteen translations of Eugene Onegin into English, verse and non-verse.

The listing of them occupies nearly an entire page of her thesis Below just the names of translators and the year of publication of their works in brackets are provided: 1. Spalding , 2. Deutsch , 3. Elton , 5. Simmons , 6. Arndt , 7. Kayden , 8. Nabokov , 9. Johnston , Clough , Falen , Kozlov , Briggs translation] , Hofstadter , Emmet and Makourenkova , Clarke , She also uses three planes of comparison, Verbal, Poetic and Joint only for verse translations , in order to apply her TEM thoroughly.

So, Tarvi ends up with the division of her stanza sample into sub-samples: the largest size 35 stanzas in their entirety , the middle size 6 out of the chosen 35 and the smallest size 1 out of the 6 from the middle size sample ; she analyses data from all these samples in the three planes. Thus, as; it simply consists of 35 stanzas in 19 versions of the translated text. Tarvi uses for her various planes of assessment two kinds of units. One is a token a word , for the Verbal Plane, and another is a poetic line, for the Poetic Plane. So, in the comparative analysis, the Joint Plane requires a combination of both frames, Verbal and Poetic.

All these coded names for various bits of data are used to measure the correspondence between source and target texts. By trying to access the degree of isomorphism in the nineteen translations from various planes Tarvi returns to the idea of equivalence in translation.

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However, she understands the concept of equivalence differently: it is not a word-for-word equivalence type or a dynamic equivalence, but it is the equivalence of sustaining information in translation. In this way, the new research on Eugene Onegin operates with an adjusted concept of equivalence, which is information-for-information equivalence. Among its numerous tables of results, Table 25 is the most important for this research. It ranks the verse translations applying her TEM in all three samples. Interestingly enough, Tarvi makes an attempt to compare her findings with the various opinions presented by the translators themselves, professional critics, and professors and chapters, in which they carry out a kind of pre-translation analysis, trying to evaluate what problems they will face in their translations and also to set up their own targets in producing versions of the original.

To me, Tarvi does not use this material to its full introductions in more detail, as they are valuable sources of information on the tr 12 sources of cluster reviews starting from the Simmons publication and ending with the discussion of the British ten-volume collection, Complete Works by Alexander Pushkin Pushkin Again, Tarvi looks briefly at her chosen sources and The data from her questionnaire sent to the departments of American universities where Russian language and literature are taught is used as another source of evidence which highlights similarities between the respondents to her questionnaire and her findings based on the application of the TEM.

Without any doubt, Eugene Onegin in the 21th century, incorporating the use of new technologies as well as opportunities to communicate without any borders between scholars all over the world. It also shows her personal dedication to the subject. This impressive quantitative study, however, will benefit from incorporating additional qualitative elements: for instance, a closer evaluation of paratexts in translations, and any move towards a more contemporary subject than equivalence would also be welcome.

The following thirteen translations were published after Tarvi had conducted her research: 1. Litoshick 2. Beck 3.

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Stone 5. Hoyt 6. Mitchell 7. Kline 8. Portnoi Another interesting phenomenon of Eugene Onegin in English in the contemporary period is that nobody apart from the translators themselves evaluates and compares these translations. Cluster reviews do not exist outside the paratexts of some of these translations. The absence of academic work on this subject in terms of the motivation change in retranslating Eugene Onegin can be explained: it is not any more an athletic 21st-century trend: finally finished; This bullet I must bite, I know.

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To a large extent, this idea can be explained in the context of Briggs s many years of experience as an academic in the UK and as a successful translator of Russian literature. In other words, Briggs s professional reputation and knowledge are unlikely to be questioned. This allows him to evince good will by offering to cooperate with his fellow-translators. Briggs s provides several examples of his new work ethics in which he shares some of his translating strategies with the reader. One of them is to study previous translations of the Pushkin novel.

He does not see his fellow-translators as competitors. To Briggs, they are informants on possible translation problems. By making this statement, he demonstrates his positive attitude to the task and expresses his confidence: and improve the general quality of decision-making Moreover, Briggs s examination of several translations of Eugene Onegin is largely devoid of mention of the names of his fellow-translators. In his attempt to identify and explain how various technical difficulties have been tackled previously Briggs draws examples from a number of translations and concentrates on analysing them.

We are going for a straight transliteration of the original rather than obvious and popular is that, while the name has been widely used in Ireland and has transferred itself to America by emigration, the rest of the Anglophone world is less comfortable with it In the twenty-four pages of his , Briggs manages to mention only two of his predecessors: Henry Spalding and Stanley Mitchell , without pronouncing any judgements on their work.

The appearance of these two names in Briggs s Note can be attributed to an intention to exemplify the existing tradition by specifying the first and one of its last translators. However, it is strange that, when publishing his work in , Briggs had been unaware Eugene Onegin. His list of the previous English translations of the Pushkin novel contains only thirteen items. They are mentioned in a separate chapter, Previous English Translations of Yevgeny Onegin, which accomplishes his paratext in the volume These translations are listed below only by the names of their translators and their years of publication, without any further bibliographical data: 1.

Radin and Patrick 4. Simmons unpublished typescript, 6. Arndt 7. Nabokov 8. Kayden 9. Johnston Falen He does not aim to produce the best translation of the a reasonable prioritising the aural over the other elements in translation Briggs leaves the domain of English and Russian cultures. The Cultural Road Not Taken, the title of the first part of his Notes, provides enough evidence to conclude that Briggs is happy in both cultures, but his translation strategy takes a middle way.

His half-way position might not necessarily be the safest stance in translating, but it is clearly the most acquired method -speaking reader. For example, Briggs dedicates one of the subchapters of his introductory remarks to discussing the Onegin stanza, in which he identifies and stresses the presence of some elements of both Italian and English sonnets. Thus, highlighting the known, i. At the very end of his Notes, Briggs raises another issue, the relationship of the author and the translator. If previously it had been considered good translation practice to be faithful to the author, with the appearance of Briggs s Yevgeny Onegin it became obvious that the balance of power had been moved slightly in the direction of the translator.

By advocating this swing, Briggs refers to such an authoritative figure in translation as Jorge elop an idea from Jorge seem 2. This overview of the existing English translations of Eugene Onegin has highlighted a number of current trends in the translations of Pushkin into English and in contemporary research into the subject. Among them is the presence of the strong -speaking audience. They point, however, to the old question of the amount of foreignness which should be preserved in any translated text.

This will be followed by an examination of its second edition published in It will be shown how Venuti managed to sharpen his views on domestication and foreignization after more than ten years of polemics and discussion with his colleagues. Then the Translation Study Reader , one of the two collections of scholarly articles on translation edited by Venuti at the turn of the 21st century, will be investigated as this volume and The Scandals of Translation have helped him to contextualise his ideas. The review will be continued by focusing on the developments in the Russian tradition.

After highlighting possible gaps in the theory of domestication and foreignization which this study is going to eliminate two more points will be addressed. The first is related to choosing the system of terminology which will be applied in my research. The second is the selection of an appropriate theoretical model which could be used in order to extract data for future analysis.

Moreover, owing to his work in the s, the role of the translator has begun to attract the attention of translation studies scholars. Translating, Rewriting, and the Manipulation of Literary Fame was published in the Translation Studies series under the general editing of Bassnett and Lefevere.

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According to them, any translation involves rewriting based on manipulation, and in this way it tackles the problems of change and power. To Venuti, however, these words are not abstract political slogans. These methods per se are not new in translation. Then he enlarges these brief Aristotelian style definitions by pointing to their other features. Venuti explains various facets of domesticating and foreignizing translation in his book; his starting-point is the concept of invisibility.

His first chapter is called Invisibility, as in the title of the whole book. In other words, they make them spread a certain ideology which is related to one particular religion. Lecercle in particular questions the existence of fixed frontiers between the allowed and disallowed in language and praises its ambiguity, excess and autonomous growth. Venuti understands that it is impossible to avoid subjectivity in translation, but, in his opinion, this should be channelled into other areas rather than be criticised.

He intends to maintain high standards of translation rather than ruin them. In this way, foreignizing can be obvious and not opaque as it activates domestic cultural materials and agendas Venuti states that translations can be read as translations, as special types of literature. In the next five chapters of his book, he provides examples of what makes a translation a text of its own by producing his version of the history of translation in which the relationship between domesticating and foreignizing methods is discussed.

He starts by describing various periods in translation. In particular, he stresses that there was a time when fluent translation was not the norm in English-speaking countries: it did not acquire its canonical status for about two centuries, until the turn of the 19th century. Venuti, however, does not provide any sound explanation as to why domestication won out over foreignization in English translations at that particular time.

According to Bennett, not only the worldview but English grammatical structures were also exported to other cultures and languages ibid. From time to time, when Venuti talks about the history of translation and tries to preserve the sharp division between the two translation methods, he is not able to be consistent, in particular in his perception of the political agenda of foreignizing translation. His main concern is the identification of its roots, democratic or non-democratic, elitist or non- elitist.

In addition to this problem, there is a question of human nature: does the concept of general human nature exist, or is it more appropriate to talk about an aesthetic individualism? For instance, in his concluding chapter Call to Action, Venuti writes: The theory and practice of English-language translation They all sound non- standard to English-speakers. Venuti also emphasizes that Newman added glossaries to his translations where the definitions of archaic words were provided.

This is the first time in the whole book when Venuti exemplifies in some detail his idea of foreignising translation. His next chapter, Dissidence, provides a valuable addition to the discussion of translation proper. His additions to the previous list of foreignizing elements are significant. So what did Venuti learn from Pound? To Venuti, this is an unusual claim as it stands for the cultural autonomy of a translation which is dependent on domestic values and which at the same time signals the differences of the foreign text. Secondly, it is his promotion of bilingual publications.

Thirdly, it is his maintenance of the discursive heterogeneity in the target language. This is another occasion on which Venuti relies upon a previous study, but he moves it further forward. Thus, words such as town, flower and woman are just ordinary words, but they begin to look as extraordinary words when they are grouped in pairs and connected with a hyphen. He does not clarify or develop the concept. When, however, Venuti exemplifies his points, he comes back to discussing terminological problems, not ideology.

Venuti starts his book by arguing the importance of translators being visible, but he ends his book by urging them to be resistant to cultural constraints. These recommendations or injunctions might sound revolutionary, as if Venuti were to encourage translators to go and build barricades and fight against the dominance of English on the streets.

In his Call to Action, the concluding chapter of the book, he explains his vision of the mission of translators: their aim is experimentation and the revision of cultural, economic and legal codes by changing the practice of reading, reviewing and teaching translation. It looks as if he has left the domain of translation as ideology and translation as communication and has moved to translation as ethics.

This definition requires clarification. What is clear from the quote is that Venuti is looking for an escape from the paradigm of translation as ideology and is searching for a suitable path. His reference to ethics signals a possible direction. His article is called Histories and Utopias. He emphasises the existence of two opposing views among the scholars of translation in their understanding of Venuti.

Opinions are spread between two poles. He has many adherents but also many critics, with relatively few readers left indifferent or doubtful in the middle Translation Studies Reader In his Translation Studies Reader , Venuti tries to exemplify the main approaches to understanding translation. The works of thirty authors, including Venuti himself, from s to the present, are included here. This book has had two further editions, a second in and a third in , in which Venuti has updated the contents of some of his sections.

Additionally, he shows that he is open to positive criticism and is able to modify his ideas. The works of Schleiermacher, Pound and Nabokov have already been discussed in this thesis. All authors mentioned below have their own antecedents; they do not depend entirely on Venuti for their widespread recognition. However, in my literature review their ideas are presented from one particular angle, i. Venuti chose this article, published in , because it suits his vision of translation.

Benjamin and Venuti use different terms; however, their meanings correspond with one another. A real translation is transparent; it does not cover the original, does not black its light, but allows the pure language, as though reinforced by its own medium, to shine upon the original all the more fully Benjamin argues: It is the task of the translator to release in his own language that pure language which is under the spell of another, to liberate the language imprisoned in a work in his re-creation of that work.

For the sake of pure language he breaks through decayed barriers of his own language. The names mentioned in the quote help Benjamin as well as Venuti to propagate their agendas. In particular, various translation methods and the different ways to interpret the text are at the centre of their debates.

Borges begins his analysis by considering the different titles of some translations of The Nights. Mardrus, in , his Livre des mille nuits et une nuit To Borges it is clear that the particular number, , in the title does not represent the exact number of stories in the book: it is a metaphor. To translators, however, his work is a remarkable example of how to develop the English language and the art of translation; it is also valued for his extensive anthropological explanatory notes.

Archaic words coexist with slang, the lingo of prisoners or sailors with technical terms. Each of these is indubitably the mot juste, but their interspersion amounts to a kind of skewing of the original. A good skewing, since such verbal — and syntactical — pranks beguile the occasionally exhausting course of the Nights According to Berman, […] Today we view it as one of the great moments of western translation: not only because it gives us access to the Greek tragic Word, but because while giving us access to this Word, it reveals the veiled essence of every translation He uses the expression to define and explain what translation is.

He also understands foreignness in two ways. The second type of foreignness is something that looks different at first sight but later becomes more familiar. Berman claims that in many cases this strangeness is radically repressed, negated, acclimatised and naturalised instead of being accentuated. To him, there are other ways of treating foreignness in translation; they are recognised but not dealt with appropriately.

After his careful examination of translation Berman produces a list of twelve deforming tendencies. The names of some of these tendencies sound negative, but, to me, they might be the way in which Berman tries to emphasise some episodes in translating in which the abuse of the original by the translator is taking place.

As an essential part of any translation, these deformations militate against fluency in translation. As simple restitution of meaning, translation could never have played this formative role Contrary to Berman, Venuti thinks that a fluent translation can be a foreignizing translation, as he is not keen to cultivate foreignness artificially and to render a target text only with difficult comprehensible and readable expressions.

At the end of his book, Toury writes about a law of interference which highlights the issue of inequality of languages. He argues: In its most general form, the law of interference would read: in translation, phenomena pertaining to the make-up of the source text tend to be transferred to the target text, whether they manifest themselves in the form of negative transfer i. As Toury outlines descriptive studies, he is able only to record facts without evaluating them because this might be considered to be subjective in the chosen paradigm.

Bassnett is one of them. She published her first version of Translation Studies in , and its last edition, the fourth, was published in Bassnett identifies the presence of different movements in translation in the 19th century, in particular in the work of Longfellow and Fitzgerald. What an author says and how he says it, that is the problem of the translator cited in Bassnett 73 after De Sua She finds that its style contrasts with that of Longfellow. Bassnett adds a new dimension to the discussion to come on ideology in translation; she stresses the issue of a different criterion to be used in judging translations.


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  7. It seems to her that elements of politics are introduced into translation from outside, from reviewers, from their attitudes in particular. Thus Bassnett writes: All too often, in discussing their work, translators avoid analysis of their own methods and concentrate on exposing the frailties of other translators. Critics, on the other hand, frequently evaluate a translation from one or other of two limited standpoints: from the narrow view of the closeness of the translation to the SL text an evaluation that can only be made if the critic has access to both languages or from the treatment of the TL text as a work in their own language.

    Bassnett, an editor and a contributor to The Translator as Writer , describes her position in more detail in the publication and moves from the perception of translation as ideology to culture politics, indicating a strong cultural turn in translation, or to translation as creative writing, emphasising the importance of recreating the author through the establishment of a personal bond between the writer and the translator. Venuti names Tymoczko as one of his competitors, those scholars who promoted their approach through developing the critiques of his ideas.

    He emphasizes their strong political connotations ix. She operates with voices which are silenced, marginalised, or neutralised Tymoczko Her idea of grouping terms will be later developed by other scholars, in particular by Pym and Kruger In order to explain his points in detail, Eco refers to Humboldt who argued for two perceptions of strangeness, Fremdheit foreignness, unfamiliarity, strangeness, alienness and das Fremde the strange or the unfamiliar.

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