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Mh Neural networks, fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence Pj Image processing Rm Data presentation and visualization: algorithms and implementation Tp Computer modeling and simulation Wr Computer interfaces Df Sensors chemical, optical, electrical, movement, gas, etc.
Hj Display and recording equipment, oscilloscopes, TV cameras, etc. Mp Transducers Tw Servo and control equipment; robots Vx Hygrometers; hygrometry Cm Micromechanical devices and systems Fq Vibration isolation Lw Balance systems, tensile machines, etc. Pz Instruments for strain, force, and torque Dt Thermometers Fw Calorimeters Hy Furnaces; heaters Ka High-temperature instrumentation; pyrometers Mc Cryogenics; refrigerators, low-temperature detectors, and other low-temperature equipment Pe Heat engines; heat pumps; heat pipes Bx Degasification, residual gas Cy Vacuum pumps Dz Vacuum gauges Hd Vacuum testing methods; leak detectors Kf Vacuum chambers, auxiliary apparatus, and materials Ek Circuits and circuit components Hp Electrical noise and shielding equipment Ls Electrometers Qx Signal processing electronics Db Generation of magnetic fields; magnets Ge Magnetometers for magnetic field measurements Jg Magnetometers for susceptibility, magnetic moment, and magnetization measurements Nk Magnetic shielding in instruments Hm Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave sources Kp Bolometers; infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave receivers and detectors Pt Submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave spectrometers; magnetic resonance spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques Ty Infrared spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques Dq Photometers, radiometers, and colorimeters Fs Polarimeters and ellipsometers Hv Refractometers and reflectometers Ly Interferometers Pb Conventional optical microscopes Rd Visible and ultraviolet spectrometers Vg Fiber-optic instruments Gx Atomic and molecular beam sources and detectors Ka Charged-particle beam sources and detectors Cz Scanning tunneling microscopes Fc Near-field scanning optical microscopes Lh Atomic force microscopes Pk Magnetic force microscopes Sp Friction force microscopes Jy Diffractometers Qe Synchrotron radiation instrumentation Tt X-ray microscopes Cd Axiomatic approach Ef Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approach Gh Renormalization Hi Renormalization group evolution of parameters Jj Asymptotic problems and properties Kk Field theories in dimensions other than four Lm Nonlinear or nonlocal theories and models Nx Noncommutative field theory St Bound and unstable states; Bethe-Salpeter equations Wx Finite-temperature field theory Bt General properties of perturbation theory Ex Spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries Ha Lattice gauge theory Kc Classical and semiclassical techniques Me Strong-coupling expansions Pg Expansions for large numbers of components e.
Particles, Sources, And Fields, Volume 1 - CRC Press Book
Tk Other nonperturbative techniques Wx Topologically massive gauge theories Yc Chern-Simons gauge theory Db Properties of perturbation theory Hf Conformal field theory, algebraic structures Mj Compactification and four-dimensional models Pm Noncritical string theory Sq Nonperturbative techniques; string field theory Uv D branes Wx String and brane phenomenology Yb M theory Er Charge conjugation, parity, time reversal, and other discrete symmetries Fs Global symmetries e. Hv Flavor symmetries Ly Other internal and higher symmetries Na Nonlinear and dynamical symmetries spectrum-generating symmetries Pb Supersymmetry Qc Spontaneous and radiative symmetry breaking Rd Chiral symmetries Dw General theory of currents Ex Formal properties of current algebras Ha Partially conserved axial-vector currents Bq Analytic properties of S matrix Ds Exact S matrices Fv Dispersion relations Hx Sum rules Jy Regge formalism Cr Kinematical properties helicity and invariant amplitudes, kinematic singularities, etc.
Et Partial-wave analysis Fv Approximations eikonal approximation, variational principles, etc. Gw Multichannel scattering Jy Many-body scattering and Faddeev equation La Multiple scattering Dm Unified theories and models of strong and electroweak interactions Kt Unification of couplings; mass relations Ff Quark and lepton masses and mixing Ji Applications of electroweak models to specific processes Lk Electroweak radiative corrections Mm Neutral currents Ds Specific calculations Fv Experimental tests Aw General properties of QCD dynamics, confinement, etc.
Bx Perturbative calculations Cy Summation of perturbation theory Gc Lattice QCD calculations Lg Other nonperturbative calculations Mh Quark-gluon plasma Qk Experimental tests Ba Bag model Dc Skyrmions Fe Chiral Lagrangians Hg Heavy quark effective theory Jh Nonrelativistic quark model Ki Relativistic quark model Pn Potential models St Factorization Ee Statistical models Vv Vector-meson dominance Yx Hadron mass models and calculations Cn Extensions of electroweak gauge sector Fr Extensions of electroweak Higgs sector Jv Supersymmetric models Nz Technicolor models Rc Composite models Eb Decays of K mesons Fc Decays of charmed mesons He Decays of bottom mesons Jf Decays of other mesons Es Decays of K mesons Ft Decays of charmed mesons Hw Decays of bottom mesons Jx Decays of other mesons Ce Leptonic, semileptonic, and radiative decays Eg Hadronic decays Bv Decays of muons Dx Decays of taus Hb Decays of heavy neutrinos Be Decays of W bosons Dg Decays of Z bosons Dk Electromagnetic mass differences Em Electric and magnetic moments Gp Electromagnetic form factors Hq Electromagnetic decays Ks Electromagnetic corrections to strong- and weak-interaction processes Fz Elastic and Compton scattering Hb Total and inclusive cross sections including deep-inelastic processes Le Meson production Rj Baryon production Lm Processes in other lepton-lepton interactions Cs Nucleon-nucleon interactions Ev Hyperon-nucleon interactions Gx Pion-baryon interactions Jz Kaon-baryon interactions Lb Meson-meson interactions Dz Elastic scattering Fb Inelastic scattering: two-particle final states Hd Inelastic scattering: many-particle final states Lg Total cross sections Ni Inclusive production with identified hadrons Qk Inclusive production with identified leptons, photons, or other nonhadronic particles Rm Limits on production of particles Tp Cosmic-ray interactions Ce Production Fh Fragmentation into hadrons Dh Protons and neutrons Jn Hyperons Pt Exotic baryons Aq pi, K , and eta mesons Ev Other strange mesons Pq Heavy quarkonia Rt Exotic mesons Cd Electrons including positrons Ef Muons Fg Taus Hi Other charged heavy leptons Lm Ordinary neutrinos Pq Neutrino mass and mixing St Non-standard-model neutrinos, right-handed neutrinos, etc.
Bt Light quarks Dw Charmed quarks Fy Bottom quarks Ha Top quarks Jk Other quarks e. Bh Photons Dj Gluons Fm W bosons Hp Z bosons Kv Gravitons Pw Other gauge bosons Bn Standard-model Higgs bosons Cp Non-standard-model Higgs bosons Da Supersymmetric Higgs bosons Ec Other neutral Higgs bosons Fd Other charged Higgs bosons Hv Magnetic monopoles Ly Supersymmetric partners of known particles Mz Axions and other Nambu-Goldstone bosons Majorons, familons, etc.
Nb Neutralinos and charginos Pq R-hadrons Rt Kaluza-Klein excitations Sv Leptoquarks Tt Technicolor Va Axions and other Nambu-Goldstone bosons Majorons, familons, etc.
Particles, Sources, And Fields, Volume 2
Dr Binding energies and masses Ft Charge distribution Gv Nucleon distributions and halo features Hw Spin, parity, and isobaric spin Jx Spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients Ky Electromagnetic moments Ma Level density Pc Single-particle levels and strength functions Re Collective levels Sf Coulomb energies, analogue states Tg Lifetimes, widths Cb Nuclear forces in vacuum Fe Forces in hadronic systems and effective interactions Bc Two-nucleon system Ff Three-nucleon forces Cs Shell model De Ab initio methods Ev Collective models Fw Models based on group theory Gx Cluster models Ka Monte Carlo models Cd Asymmetric matter, neutron matter Ef Symmetry energy Jk Mesons in nuclear matter Mn Equations of state of nuclear matter Qr Quark matter En Angular distribution and correlation measurements Gq Multipole mixing ratios Js Multipole matrix elements Nx Internal conversion and extranuclear effects including Auger electrons and internal bremsstrahlung Ra Internal pair production Bw Weak-interaction and lepton Hc Relation with nuclear matrix elements and nuclear structure Cn Many-body theory Eq Coupled-channel and distorted-wave models Ht Optical and diffraction models Jv Relativistic models Lx Monte Carlo simulations including hadron and parton cascades and string breaking models Nz Hydrodynamic models Pa Thermal and statistical models Cz Giant resonances Gd Other resonances Dr Statistical compound-nucleus reactions Gv Statistical multistep direct reactions Ky Fluctuation phenomena Lz Chaos in nuclear systems Dc Photon absorption and scattering Lj Photoproduction reactions Bf Elastic electron scattering Dh Inelastic electron scattering to specific states Fj Inelastic electron scattering to continuum Hm Positron-induced reactions Mr Muon-induced reactions including the EMC effect Pt Neutrino-induced reactions Rw Electroproduction reactions Cm Elastic proton scattering Dn Elastic neutron scattering Ep Inelastic proton scattering Fq Inelastic neutron scattering Hs Transfer reactions Kv Charge-exchange reactions Lw Radiative capture Ny Resonance reactions Sc Spallation reactions De Elastic and inelastic scattering Hi Transfer reactions Kk Charge-exchange reactions Ci Elastic and inelastic scattering Hp Transfer reactions Kr Charge-exchange reactions Bx Elastic scattering Dz Interaction and reaction cross sections Gc Breakup and momentum distributions Je Transfer reactions Lg Charge-exchange reactions Pj Fusion reactions Tv Radiative capture Bc Elastic and quasielastic scattering De Coulomb excitation Ef Resonances Gh Compound nucleus Jj Fusion and fusion-fission reactions Lm Strongly damped collisions Mn Projectile and target fragmentation Pq Multifragment emission and correlations Ag Global features in relativistic heavy ion collisions Bh Hard scattering in relativistic heavy ion collisions Cj Photon, lepton, and heavy quark production in relativistic heavy ion collisions Dw Particle and resonance production Gz Particle correlations and fluctuations Ld Collective flow Nq Quark deconfinement, quark-gluon plasma production, and phase transitions Dj Pion elastic scattering Ek Pion inelastic scattering Gn Pion charge-exchange reactions Hp Pion-induced reactions Ls Pion inclusive scattering and absorption Nv Kaon-induced reactions Pw Hyperon-induced reactions Ca Spontaneous fission Ec Neutron-induced fission Ge Charged-particle-induced fission Jg Photofission Cd Stellar hydrogen burning Fj Stellar helium burning Kn s-process Np Nucleosynthesis in late stellar evolution Qr Quasistatistical processes Ca Explosive burning in accreting binary systems novae, x-ray bursts Ef Explosive burning in supernovae shock fronts Hj r-process Jk Weak interaction and neutrino induced processes, galactic radioactivity Dd Neutron star core Gj Neutron star crust Kp Equations of state of neutron-star matter Cz Neutron scattering Fc Neutron absorption Gd Neutron transport: diffusion and moderation Ka Thermal neutron cross sections Pr Neutron imaging; neutron tomography An electron, for example, is just an excitation of an electron field.
This may seem counterintuitive, but seeing the world in terms of fields actually helps make sense of some otherwise confusing facts of particle physics.
When a radioactive material decays, for example, we think of it as spitting out different kinds of particles. Neutrons decay into protons, electrons and neutrinos.
Yet they appear when neutrons decay. If we think in terms of fields, this sudden appearance of new kinds of particles starts to make more sense. The energy and excitation of one field transfers to others as they vibrate against each other, making it seem like new types of particles are appearing. Thinking in fields provides a clearer picture of how scientists are able to make massive particles like Higgs bosons in the Large Hadron Collider.
The LHC smashes bunches of energetic protons into one another, and scientists study those collisions.
One group determined TXS is about 4. That makes it one of the most luminous objects in the cosmos. Because MAGIC sees to higher energies and has finer angular resolution than Fermi, this finding strengthened the connection to the neutrino—but not quite enough. In the first of the recent papers IceCube and the 15 collaborations that followed up on its alert conclude there is about one chance in a thousand the coincidence in direction and time between the single neutrino and the flaring blazer was just that, a coincidence.
In this business, you need one chance in three million to claim discovery.
Perplexingly, however, Fermi had observed no corresponding flare in gamma rays. Another IceCubist, Elisa Resconi, an astrophysicist at the Technical University of Munich, gathered a small team to investigate more closely. Synthesizing all the observations that had ever been made of TXS, they discovered it actually had flared in gammas in , but in a subtle way.
- Martin Oduor-Otieno Library catalog › Details for: Particles, sources, and fields /.
- Elements of the Modern Theory of Partial Differential Equations.
- The Psychic Detective;
- The Absence Of Myth.
Although it had not given off more gamma-ray energy altogether, its spectrum had shifted toward higher-energy gammas exactly when it had flared in neutrinos. And the shapes of the optical and neutrino spectra shifted in complementary ways during both flares. This is the first convincing direct evidence for the acceleration of a hadronic component [a particle made of quarks] in any source. Basic particle physics says these neutrinos can only have been produced by hadrons, which would primarily have been protons, emerging in the blazar jet and colliding with other particles, including photons, on their way out.alijedodas.tk
Particles, Sources and Fields Vol 2
Because the cosmic rays that bombard Earth are made up predominantly of protons and heavier nuclei, the simple fact a blazar has now been shown to produce high-energy neutrinos is the first solid clue to a possible source of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. The reason it is difficult to identify the sources of cosmic rays is that they carry electric charge, so their trajectories are bent by interstellar magnetic fields and their arrival directions do not point back to their origins. Because the neutrinos IceCube detected must have traveled in straight lines and must have been produced by hadrons, they indicate high-energy hadrons must have been emitted from the same blazar source.
The various models for neutrino emission from blazars, developed in blissful theoretical isolation, have now had their first encounter with real data, and none can explain the exact details seen. This discovery also gives a shot in the arm to the nascent field of neutrino astronomy. Both Waxman and Watson now hunger for next-generation instruments. The IceCube collaboration has proposed an upgrade that stands to improve sensitivity by an order of magnitude, and similar instruments are planned for deployment in the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Baikal, Siberia.
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