He had a deep-rooted scepticism towards all kinds of showmanship and gimmickry in the theatre. In Bergman's view the theatre should be 'man's interface with man' and nothing else besides, distancing himself from such directors as Peter Brook, Giorgio Strehler and Frank Castorf. Even though Bergman himself, like Max Reinhardt before him, rejected the idea that there can be a special style to be applied to all plays, there are, on closer inspection, recurring elements and devices that can collectively be described as a Bergmanesque theatrical directing style.
In his early years there was a clear production concept characterised by basic scenery, interpretative choices, a sensitivity to the play's rhythm and to the audience's response, and a coordinated use of stage design and actors to form a visual whole. In his eager desire to uncover the essence of any play, Bergman did not shy away from making cuts, often fairly drastic in nature. And in Bergman's productions, the actors literally occupied a central role. He placed the action in what he called the focal point, the area of the stage where he felt that the actors would have the greatest effect on the audience.
Another device was to use the actors to amplify the theatricality of the play: they were often present on stage even in scenes in which they do not participate, as silent observers. Thus Bergman allowed the audience to take part in the magical ritual which never ceased to fascinate him, the one in which the actors bring their roles to life.
It all started with puppet theatre, with which he began to experiment at the age of 11, and which he developed to a highly sophisticated extent prior to his entry into 'real' theatre in the late s. At university in Stockholm, Bergman had attended Martin Lamm's lectures on Strindberg, but apart from his puppet theatre, he had no experience of his own.
His first production was Sutton Vane's Outward Bound. Rumours about Bergman's rigorous rehearsal regime, his loose language and violent tempers quickly spread, giving rise to the nickname that stuck with him throughout his career, the 'demon director'. Bergman directed Shakespeare and Strindberg for the first time, and his productions soon drew the attention of the media.
Bergman's reputation grew, and when one of Sweden's foremost children's theatres, Sagoteatern, opened up in and staged plays at Stockholm's Civic Centre, Bergman was chosen as its head. The first play he directed was The Tinder Box , and just two weeks later, Stockholm's smallest theatre company at the time, Medborgarteatern, opened up at the same address as Sagoteatern.
Despite favourable reviews, the production was a box-office flop that closed after just one week, whereupon Bergman returned to children's theatre. In total, Bergman staged seven productions at the Civic Centre. In Bergman had established contact with the Stockholm Student Theatre, a definite advancement in his career.
He gained access both to professional actors and students from The Royal Dramatic Theatre stage school. Here he first encountered a number of people he was to work with for many years ahead, including Erland Josephson , Birger Malmsten and Ulf Johanson.
In , he directed for the first time a play which he himself had written, Death of Punch. Over the next ten years he wrote at least nine other plays, six of which he staged and directed. Bergman's skills as a writer gained him his first job in films as a screenwriter and assistant director at Svensk Filmindustri. Here he directed plays by Swedish dramatists, some of whom were newcomers. In Bergman took over as head of the Helsingborg City Theatre, thus becoming, at the age of 26, the youngest head of a major theatre in Europe.
Having recently lost its state funding, the theatre itself was on the brink of ruin.
- New Takes on IBSEN - Ibsen International;
- The Best Known Works Of Ibsen!
- Account Options.
- Fabricating Europe: The Formation of an Education Space.
His task was to bring back the audiences, and consequently, the repertoire became 'shamelessly populist', according to Bergman himself. Productions came thick and fast, and rehearsal times were short.
- Biotechnology : An Illustrated Primer.
- Memorable Quotations: Statesmen of the Past!
The actors however, several of whom had followed Bergman from Stockholm, were used to the director's strict codes of discipline at work, and audience numbers grew. One year later, the theatre had its state funding restored. Bergman later expressed his deep gratitude to his boss at the time. He led me firmly away from any illusions of wallowing in emotion. After just a couple of years at Gothenburg City Theatre, the critic Ebbe Linde wrote of Bergman, 'When it comes to directing his cast, magnificence, ideas and understanding of the text, it is hard to name anyone in this country who is indisputably superior to this former eccentric.
Henrik Ibsen: A complete guide to his plays performed in the West End
Among the playwrights staged was Albert Camus, whose Caligula Bergman directed to great acclaim. Also at this time, Bergman's work in film began to be reflected in his work in the theatre, and vice versa. He began, for example, to project shadows in silhouette, a device he used in many of his films.
John Gabriel Borkman. Select bibliography.
Peer Gynt and Ghosts - Asbjørn Aarseth - Google книги
One Nora many Noras. The Wild Duck. Hedda Gabler.
Related Peer Gynt and Ghosts: Text and Performance
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved