The Infrared and Electro Optical Systems Handbook 8 Volume Set), Volume 2


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ISBN 10: 0819410721

Smith, editor — v. Rogatto, editor — v. Dudzik, editor — v. Campana, editor — v. Fox, editor — v. Robinson, editor. ISBN 1.

Joint Gemini-JAC Library Catalog

Infrared technology—Handbooks, manuals, etc. Electrooptical devices—Handbooks, manuals, etc. Accetta, J. Shumaker, David L. Infrared handbook. I5 No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without written permission of one of the publishers. However, the U. Government retains an irrevocable, royalty-free license to reproduce, for U.

Government purposes, any portion of this publication not otherwise subject to third-party copyright protection. The circulation of nearly 20, copies is adequate testimony to its wide acceptance in the electro-optics and infrared communities. Since its original inception, new topics and technologies have emerged for which little or no reference material exists.

This work is intended to update and complement the current Infrared Handbook by revision, addition of new materials, and reformatting to increase its utility. Of necessity, some material from the current book was reproduced as is, having been adjudged as being current and adequate. The 45 chapters represent most subject areas of current activity in the military, aerospace, and civilian communities and contain material that has rarely appeared so extensively in the open literature.

Because the contents are in part derivatives of advanced military technology, it seemed reasonable to categorize those chapters dealing with systems in analogy to the specialty groups comprising the annual Infrared Information Symposia IRIS , a Department of Defense DoD sponsored forum administered by the Infrared Information Analysis Center of the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan ERIM ; thus, the presence of chapters on active, passive, and countermeasure systems.

Usability was the prime consideration. In addition, we wanted each chapter to be largely self-contained to avoid time-consuming and tedious referrals to other chapters. Although best addressed by example, the essence of our handbook style embodies four essential ingredients: a brief but well-referenced tutorial, a practical formulary, pertinent data, and, finally, example problems illustrating the use of the formulary and data.

VII viii PREFACE The final product represents varying degrees of success in achieving this structure, with some chapters being quite successful in meeting our objectives and others following a somewhat different organization. Its ultimate success will be judged by the community that it serves. Although largely oriented toward system applications, a good measure of this book concentrates on topics endemic and fundamental to systems performance.

It is organized into eight volumes: Volume 1, edited by George Zissis of ERIM, treats sources of radiation, including both artificial and natural sources, the latter of which in most military applications is generally regarded as background radiation. It features significant amounts of new material and data on absorption, scattering, and turbulence, including nonlinear propagation relevant to high-energy laser systems and propagation through aerody- namically induced flow relevant to systems mounted on high-performance aircraft.

Volume 3, edited by William Rogatto of Santa Barbara Research Center, treats traditional system components and devices and includes recent material on focal plane array read-out electronics. Volume 4, edited by Michael Dudzik of ERIM, treats system design, analysis, and testing, including adjunct technology and methods such as trackers, mechanical design considerations, and signature modeling.

Volume 6, edited by Clifton Fox of the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, treats active systems and includes mostly new material on laser radar, laser rangefinders, millimeter-wave systems, and fiber optic systems. Acknowledgments It is extremely difficult to give credit to all the people and organizations that contributed to this project in diverse ways. A significant amount of material in this book was generated by the sheer dedication and professionalism of many esteemed members of the IR and EO community who unselfishly contributed extensive amounts of precious personal time to this effort and to whom the modest honorarium extended was scarcely an inducement.

Their contributions speak elegantly of their skills. We acknowledge the extensive material and moral support given to this project by various members of the managements of all the sponsoring and supporting organizations. In many cases, organizations donated staff time and internal resources to the preparation of this book. Specifically, we would like to acknowledge J.

The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook (Press Monographs)

MacCallum of DoD, W. Brown and J. Yaver of SPIE, who had the foresight and confidence to invest significant resources in the preparation of this book. We also extend our appreciation to P. Klinefelter, B. McCabe, and F. Frank of DTIC for their administrative support during the course of this program.

We would like to pay special tribute to Nancy Hall of the IRIA Center at ERIM who administrated this at times chaotic project with considerable interpersonal skill, marshaling the numerous manuscripts and coordinating the myriad details characteristic of a work of this magnitude. We properly dedicate this book to the people who created it and trust it will stand as a monument to their skills, experience, and dedication.

It is, in the final analysis, a product of the community it is intended to serve. January Joseph S. Accetta David L. McCracken 1. Hopper 2. Cantella 3. Accetta 4. The scans are transverse to the line of flight of the vehicle carrying the IRLS. The second scan needed for a two- dimensional image is provided by forward motion of the vehicle along its flight path. Figure 1. In the special case of infrared imaging from space, the vehicle could be a satellite and the flight path could be the satellite orbit.

The second scan is then provided by adding a separate means of optical scanning, such as a nodding mirror, or by panning the entire scanner. Satellite IRLS imagers have been ground tested in this manner. The scanners in these tests viewed horizontally with a nominal azimuth scan.

In the S Denver imagery the entire scanner was panned vertically at a slow rate. Early infrared line scanners have been turned 90 deg to scan horizontally. Just 10 min of IRLS data collection at this velocity provides a strip map covering nmi of terrain. This is also the along-track ground width of one scan line. If the analog signals were to be digitized prior to recording, then digital over- sampling requirements would further increase the high data rate.


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Film Transport Fig. Note: IRLS systems usually scan several lines in parallel during each scan. For clarity of illustration only one line is shown. IRLS systems must often interface with reconnaissance management systems RMSs and with data links and ground stations. At each interface there is a potential for loss of image quality and for loss of part of the imagery because of limitations in each piece of equipment.

The velocity-to- height ratio VIH is one of the dominant parameters in IRLS design because it determines the scan rates, the number of detectors scanned in parallel, and the electrical signal bandwidth. The VIH ratio describes the angular rate of motion of the scene with respect to the moving platform and, hence, the resulting motion of the image in the focal plane. Its units are rad s The simplest approach to IRLS design assumes that continuous rotation of a scan mirror is to provide a contiguous set of scan lines across some transverse FOV.

The IRLS may scan with a single detector or it may use n detectors in parallel in the along-track y axis to keep the mirror rotation rates to practical values. A Fig. If rtf facets are scanned per each mirror revolution, the spin rate is Nsc rtf [rps].

Download The Infrared And Electro Optical Systems Handbook 8 Volume Set), Volume 2

The earliest IR line scanners used an axehead design, so-called because of the chisel-like appearance of their scan mirrors. The most common axehead scanner uses a single-facet scan mirror set at a deg angle to the shaft. A scanned beam from the scene is reflected 90 deg to an optical telescope. This type is still favored in the scientific community for imaging radiometers. Some advantages and disadvantages of single-mirror scanners are given in Table 1. Early single-facet axehead scanners had poor scan efficiency. Mirror rotation rates were limited by windage and flexure distortions.

Attempts were made to improve performance by redesign of the spin mirror. The new axehead scanner types b and c of Fig. Table 1. Large aperture in small cylindrical volume. Fits in most pods, RPVs where the vehicle or pod cross section is a critical concern. Constant large aperture over deg scan gives good sensitivity and high optical transfer function. Adaptable to wide variety of folded optical telescopes. Preferred for IR radiometers: a. Easy to insert choppers and beam splitters for multispectral IR radiometry see Fig. Easy to include ac zero clamp via rotating chopper. Calibration is viewed once each scan without data interruption.

Does not cause polarization errors. Distortions occur in the final image when a linear array of detectors is used. Wide cutout slot needed for deg scan causes structural problems in pods, RPVs. Works best with only a single detector on-axis, where the image rotation is not a problem. The scan efficiency increased but volume efficiency was less. All forms suffer from image rotation distortion.

There is a possibility of optical image interference in the use of the facets, when beams from two successive facets both reflect into the telescope. For convenience of depiction, one can consider that the projected image of the array rotates on the ground during the scan and is parallel to the flight track only at nadir. Modern semiconductor random access memories RAM used with large linear detector arrays now allow real-time electronic correction of image rotation distortion.

The image rotation can even be exploited to give a constant ground footprint across the scan. Most deployed military IRLS systems now use a split-aperture design. Several split-aperture scanners were patented by H. Kennedy of Texas Instruments. The prismatic spin mirror typically presents two facets to incoming radiation and at nadir scan position each facet has equal aperture. As the spin mirror turns off-nadir, the projected aperture of one facet narrows while the projected aperture of the other facet widens. The combined ACT aperture tends to remain constant over a wide scan angle.

The ALT aperture remains constant throughout the scan because it is not scanned except by the aircraft motion. The remaining optics of the Kennedy scanner designs fold, focus, and combine the two separate beams into a single image at the focal plane. Figures 1. A spin mirror with a square cross section does not allow deg scanning. For deg scans with a split aperture, the spin mirror must have a triangular cross section. This permits the folding mirrors to be set high enough to clear the horizon aperture of the spin mirror, as shown in Figs. The main advantage of the outboard placement of the parabolic mirrors is that the scanner is more compact in height as compared to the central-parabola Kennedy design shown in Figs.

A design used for several airborne platforms is shown in Fig. The optical paths are folded so as to keep some advantages of the single-parabola design yet give a reduced scanner height in a rugged package. The split-aperture design of Fig. The lowest spin-mirror apex climbs to reveal a narcissus strip of width W, within which the detector has a view of itself. Because the detector array and its surrounding substrate are at a temperature of less than 90 K, a negligible number of photons are received while viewing this area.

This causes an undesirable lowering of the average video signal level. In the design of Fig. A rectangular strip was cut from its bottom so that the two ACT apertures are no longer equal. The right ACT aperture is 0. Another disadvantage of this design, and of similar four-facet spin-mirror designs, is that the two lower outboard fold mirrors must be set level with the spin mirror. Also, they must be placed wide apart so that their reflected optical beams clear the spin Fig.

An inertial navigation system was to obtain periodic updates to correct drift by flying over known checkpoints on the flight path. The on-board computer was to be provided with abstracted ground images of the checkpoints so that offset errors could be measured via map matching. Conversion to FLIR operation occurs by rotation of a lightweight hemicylindrical metal shutter, as shown in the figures.

The elevation scanning mirror ran continuously in either mode. The dual optical paths of the split-aperture sensor were folded to the rear via the two upper fold mirrors and then forward to a central parabolic primary via a W-shaped mirror. The compact sensor fit on a two-axis gimbal.

The pitch mirror servo acted as a third virtual gimbal to stabilize the FLIR mode in all three axes. In downward mode the sensor used both electronic and mechanical stabilization plus offset pointing in the roll axis only. This scanner used silicon detectors for spectral channels 1 through 12, while channel 13 operated in the The conical scan pattern was formed by giving the scanner a 9-deg forward tilt from nadir. Scanning was accomplished by a small flat fold mirror that rotated on an arm to scan a circular zone of the image in the first focal plane of the telescope.

The primary was a in. The image thus contained spherical aberration, symmetric about the optical axis. The scan mirror scanned a zone of this known constant spherical aberration, which was subsequently corrected by the refocusing optics. A well- corrected image was obtained over a wide spectral band, yet the high cost of a large parabolic primary mirror was avoided. The data were tape recorded as conical scan arcs that required computer rectilinearization prior to imagery display on raster-scanned TV monitors.

Design studies have shown that the goal of a simpler scanner with no moving parts is not cost effective when compared to a conventional optomechanical scanner. Pushbroom scanners, however, can be cost effective in satellites or for pointable scanners. For deg FOV at least six windows and telescopes are needed if a telescope field of 30 deg is optimistically assumed. Means must be found to obtain a warm and a cold reference signal for stabilization of the ac signal. Usually this will require oscillation of a chopper mirror to interrupt the scene radiation.

A large multiplexed detector array is needed. The array must follow the curved focal plane of the multiple telescopes. Multiple detector dewars will be needed and cryogenic cooling will be difficult. Performance, size, weight, and cost trade-offs are made to assure a viable solution to imposed requirements. Sections 1. The angular resolution of an IRLS is determined by the aperture diffraction and by the detector size. The Rayleigh criterion used for estimating diffraction-limited resolution must distinguish between two aperture types: 1. The criterion of resolution is when the first null of one diffraction pattern in the focal plane falls on the peak of the other.

In split-aperture line scanners the limiting aperture is that of a single ACT aperture. The two beams are not correlated because optical path lengths differ for each aperture. Hence, one cannot add the two apertures together to calculate diffraction effects. The diffraction-limit estimate should use the wavelength of peak energy for the spectral band chosen. Resolution in the ALT axis depends on the length of the spin mirror. Because split-aperture scanners have two narrow rectangular apertures, the ft used in scanner design does not apply to the two scan apertures, but rather to the total aperture projection on the primary mirror.

The fl is a parameter used in determining the cone angle of all rays that the detector must accept. Most IRLS designs use fl 1. Faster systems with fractional fl are rare because the rays converge to the detector at oblique angles that are difficult to couple into the detector. Because split-aperture designs have two rectangular primary apertures on the focusing parabola, there is a possibility of two separate fl values and a nonsquare detector.

In our example, the spin mirror is 10 cm long in the along-track y dimension. The detector size see Fig. Computer-aided design CAD ray-trace studies are then usually done to disclose any obvious problems in the following areas of concern: 1. This work interacts with the requirements analysis of Sec. VIH range 3. Other services and users usually follow a similar process. At the lowest reconnaissance altitudes the VIH ratio is very high and rapid scanning is required to provide contiguous imagery. At satellite altitudes the VIH ratio is very low and redundant scans of the same scene object usually occur even with a single detector channel.

Mid-altitude general reconnaissance 2. Low-altitude penetration of high-threat areas 3. Low- and mid-altitude oblique viewing of border areas 2. Low-altitude overflight of specific targets or zones such as suspected nuclear sites and mountain passes 3. Ocean and coastal zone patrol, including antisubmarine patrol 4. Radiometric surveys of specific ground targets such as factories 2. Economic and ecological surveys such as crop health, crop size 3. Pollution monitoring in waterways such as effluent monitoring, oil slick detection, and vegetation damage 4.

By flying very low and fast the aircraft is masked by terrain while defending radar is confused by the ground clutter. Both the penetration and data collection runs are made at high speed and very low altitude, which requires that the entire flight be precisely and carefully planned. Most targets will be preassigned with their locations known to be in specific designated zones. The flight path is chosen to minimize aircraft exposure and to minimize time spent within the defended high-threat zones. The impact on the IRLS is that the aircraft will usually have to fly to the right or to the left of a target zone or between two target zones for the data collection.

There may be a few dangerous instances where targets are overflown, but typical low-level reconnaissance will require offset viewing, as shown in Fig. The very low flight altitudes and the need to view targets on both sides of the flight track simultaneously require that the IRLS have a deg FOV for nominally flat terrain.

One IRLS design uses a speed change for the higher VIH values encountered at lower altitudes and uses automatic selection of from 1 to 12 parallel detector channels as the VIH varies within each of the two altitude zones. Overlap writing on film is possible at certain VIH values, and the amount of overlap used is also an automatic decision of the logic circuits.

Detection of military activity is also an important outcome of imagery interpretation. As an example of activity we note that it is important to be able to distinguish active armored vehicles from inactive ones or from burned out hulks. Warships and factories can be inactive or they can be idle. Adequate spatial and thermal resolution allows fulfilling the four main imagery interpretation tasks: 1.

Detection: the process of establishing that a valid military target is present in the image at a specific location 2. At very low altitudes, a deg scan is needed. Identification: the process of establishing the specific type or model of the target. An example would be identification of M as the specific tank model. These four tasks are graded here in order of difficulty. Thermal resolution also is important because accomplishment of each task requires a specific perceived signal-to- noise ratio.

Johnson and Lawson 3 give probability of detection Pd, probability of recognition P R , and probability of identification Pi versus number of spatial cycles n placed across the critical target dimension for army vehicles. For army vehicles, the values of spatial resolution required for the tasks of detection, recognition, and identification are given in Tables 1.

Data for the classification task can be obtained by averaging the requirements for detection and recognition. Tables 1. IRLS designers routinely use the same criteria and requirements of spatial resolution. I Identification Features vary in size and location.

A target may be identified, for example, by a peculiar type of flash hider on its cannon. Another may be identified by cannon barrel length. Experience improves results considerably. Values given here are not supported by any studies of interpreter performance but are used in IRLS design with good results. Open ocean targets present difficulties for the longer oblique ranges in standoff reconnaissance because of the humid air paths encountered.

The light table film imagery is much brighter, has less surface reflections, and does not flicker compared to a CRT. Formation of a complete image from a CRT moving spot requires integration by the observer. The critical target dimension in most cases is the minimum viewed dimension. In plan view this would be the vehicle width, while in a front or rear or side aspect it would be the nominal vehicle height.

A pixel is the representation of an IFOV in the imagery. One cycle of spatial frequency in the imagery contains two pixels. In tests this will be one bar and one space of a four-bar test target. Each cycle is rendered in a positive image as a dark and a light pixel, and vice versa for a negative image. The number of required cycles is given in pessimistic, optimistic, and average values because the spread in the measured data allows some design choice.

Open ocean targets are seen against a clear background and differ from army vehicles in that higher spatial resolution is needed for recognition and identification. Warships vary significantly within the same class or even within the same type. Naval reconnaissance is interested in determining if specific modifications have been made to a given ship class. Determination of these modifications is critical for identification.


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High resolution is needed to see structural details used for discrimination and identification. Because required resolution for open ocean targets is dependent on the specific ship in the case of identification, no tables are given for ship recognition and identification.

IRLS designers use a safety factor compared to the requirements for army vehicles. The exact factor is a matter of end-user choice. For a given IRLS resolution the tasks of recognition and identification could be accomplished by flying close to the target. In combat this is not usually an option. The required resolution is then a function of the required standoff range. It is a means of rating photographic military reconnaissance imagery and gives imagery rating categories from 0 through 9. Rating category 7 is shown in Table 1. The Table 1. Ship identification criteria are different for open ocean targets as opposed to the same ships in a harbor or tied up at a pier or in a dry dock.

There are many instances of infrared contextual cues and clues. CCC installations are often underground with only a whip antenna showing. Evidences of traffic to and from the buried entrance may also be noted by terrain scarring, vehicle tracks, and footprints, which change soil emissivity. The low-altitude penetration missions demand imaging at highly oblique scan angles. Targets will be seen at aspects that approximate side views rather than the plan views seen near nadir. We can therefore determine the required IRLS angular resolution from the mission requirement to recognize a tank at a specified range R.

From Fig. R If the mission requirement is to achieve the same recognition performance at a 2-km slant range, the resolution would need improvement by a factor of two so that the required IFOV would be 0. Under the poor atmospheric transmission conditions often encountered in long slant paths near the ground, the signal-to-noise ratio could also be poor.

In low-altitude missions the near-nadir portions of the scanned scene will be viewed at much shorter ranges, and at nadir the range to the ground is simply the altitude. If the aircraft flies at an altitude of m, for example, the nadir range is m, while at a The number of required cycles of spatial frequency across the critical target dimension to accomplish a given task such as recognition remains constant throughout the scan. For the range variation in the scan example of Fig. First, almost all IR line scanners use fixed-focus simple optical designs.

Varying the focus dynamically during the few milliseconds available during a scan is both undesirable and impractical. Imagery is difficult to interpret if resolution varies widely within a single scan. Unimportant details are resolved in the central region of the scan, yet resolution rapidly degrades as the scan proceeds toward the horizon. Electrical bandwidth per signal channel becomes excessive.

This creates data recording, transmission, and display problems.

For example, specifying 0. Even very-high-quality military CRT monitors seldom produce more than pixels per horizontal line. A high-capacity film recorder with 5-in. Even with a 1. If magnetic tape recording is to be used, the electronic bandwidth and recording rate limits will be exceeded. The defocus effect plus electronic data processing is used in many IRLS systems to provide a constant footprint across a scan and to reduce signal bandwidth to manageable proportions. Perspective is thus corrected. A ft-long truck is depicted as the same size in the image at all scan positions.

In constant-footprint IRLS systems the pixels in a scan line are counted differently. The counting is done for only half the symmetrical scan, and then the total for the line is obtained by doubling the count. Since the target footprint 8 S is constant throughout the scan, it is possible to divide the half-scan into a nested series of right triangles, as shown in Fig. The altitude H is either a specific mission requirement or is to be varied over a limited range such as to ft in steps of ft.

The two equations are 1. In an IRLS for low-altitude missions we wish to have 8 S constant across the scan as the scan angle 0 is varied on either side of nadir. In Eq. NPIX is the total number of pixels in a line. The factor 4 includes doubling the pixels calculated for a single side. The NETD is obtained by a measurement of signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the scanner, usually at the output of the detector preamplifier.

MRTD has not been often used for IRLS systems because film was heretofore the chief display medium, where objective film microdensitometer measurements can be made rather than relying on the very subjective MRTD measurements. Both target types are useful for IRLS tests. A separate four-bar slot set is cut for each of seven or eight spatial frequencies.

Square-wave targets are used for testing thermal resolution on film in those IRLS systems using film recording. From this target we determined spatial resolution requirements needed to see this target at various slant ranges. The thermal resolution requirements can also be based on this target. The thermal resolution requirement arises from the need to have a minimum signal-to-noise ratio to accomplish a specified imagery interpretation task such as detection, recognition, or identification. IRLS imagery is easier to interpret in almost all comparable weather situations for the following reasons: 1.

IRLS images can be studied for as long as necessary. The average brightness of the light table is therefore superior and less tiring to the eye and no field flicker occurs. IRLS imagery displayed on airborne cockpit monitors does not have these advantages.

All thermal imagers depict variations in apparent infrared radiance. Radiance variations occur from both temperature and emissivity variations as modified by the atmospheric transmission. Emissivity of a given object is a result of two effects, inherent surface properties and gross three-dimensional surface geometry.

These effects are difficult to predict beforehand, so most IRLS system calculations assume unity emissivity. The scene is assumed to consist only of temperature variations. This is an acceptable procedure because most natural objects have high values of emissivity. In determining required thermal resolution, the usual practice is to assume unity emissivity. Both Nt and Nb are calculated by solution of the Table 1.

Tank avg. This calculation will not be done here. It is obtained by solution of the differentiated Planck equation. If atmospheric effects are to be included, the required NEN must improve by the atmospheric attenuation ratio. For recognition tasks, a higher SNR is required. It is, rather, a useful quality-control tool that is easy to measure and that immediately discloses system problems. The thermal resolution, or thermal sensitivity, is the specification intended to control thermal performance in the final imagery. The thermal resolution specified is that of the entire system, including the means of recording or display.

It is measured on film for 1 x IFOV-sized targets, or larger, viewed against a uniform background temperature of K.

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For 2 x IFOV targets, or larger, the target thermal resolution has been required to be 2. Density values are read by means of a transmission densitometer. For a requirements analysis, it is sufficient to define SNR requirements, the dynamic range, and the recording parameters to assure that thermal resolution requirements are met. This involves the transfer curves of each element of the signal processing chain, including the CRT and the film and its development. This establishes that the desired performance with human operators is indeed achieved by the design.

Once this has been established, the specifications for the objective MRTD can be refined. Objective MRTD production tests save time and avoid any variability caused by testing with so-called standard human observers. InSb detectors were adequate, but most infrared scenes have peak radiance in the 8- to pm band.

Hot targets, however, can have high radiance values in the 3- to 5-pm band. This advantage persists until the water-vapor content exceeds approximately mm precipitable water. Therefore, under these conditions the 8. For most missions using low-altitude oblique viewing at long slant ranges, the 8. In that case the SNR improvement is Vra and the shorter-wavelength band could have a definite advantage. HgCdTe can be optimized for other bands such as the 3- to 5-pm band by varying the stoichiometric ratio the ratio of mercury to cadmium in the ternary alloy.

In choosing an atmospheric window band it is important to remember the following points: 1. There are numerous absorption notches within both these bands such that transmission varies considerably within the band. The band edges on the long-wavelength end of the 8- to pm band between 13 and 14pm contain water-vapor absorption notches.

In humid air or light drizzle it is prudent to assume that the band cuts off at The short-wavelength end is also sensitive to water vapor. For preliminary calculations one can assume the band starts at 8. However, this is not always true. Dust clouds from tracked armored vehicles, smokes, and battlefield chemical clouds all attenuate infrared radiance.

The 8- to im band has better transmission than the 3- to 5-fim band in such conditions. For these reasons, most presently deployed military IRLS systems favor the 8. Light haze or drizzle conditions are common in Europe and in parts of North America. If the purpose of the IRLS is to detect hot targets against sky, water, or other natural backgrounds, then the 3- to 5-jxm band is useful.

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The Infrared and Electro Optical Systems Handbook 8 Volume Set), Volume 2 The Infrared and Electro Optical Systems Handbook 8 Volume Set), Volume 2
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